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Technical Paper

Investigations on the Influence of Fuel Oil Film Interaction on Pre-ignition Events in Highly Boosted DI Gasoline Engines

Premature and uncontrolled flame initiation, called pre-ignition (PI), is a prominent issue in the development of spark-ignited engines. It is commonly assumed that this abnormal combustion mode hinders progress in engine downsizing, thus inhibiting development of more efficient engines. The phenomenon is primarily observed in highly turbocharged spark ignited (SI) engines in the full load regime at low engine speeds. Subsequent engine knock induces extremely high peak pressures, potentially causing severe engine damage. The mechanisms leading to this phenomenon are not completely understood; however, it is quite plausible that a multiphase process is responsible for the pre-ignition. One effect could be the interaction between injected fuel drops and the oil film on the cylinder liner. Under certain conditions, droplets of oil or oil/fuel mixture can detach or splash from the film, leading to pre-ignition at the droplet surface towards the end of the compression phase.
Technical Paper

Impact of Non-Thermal Plasma on Particulate Emissions in Application in a Diesel Engine Exhaust Duct

Particulates and nitrogen oxides comprise the main emission components of the Diesel combustion and therefore are subject to exhaust emission legislation in respective applications. Yet, with ever more stringent emission standards and test-procedures, such as in passenger vehicle applications, resulting exhaust gas after-treatment systems are quite complex and costly. Hence, new technologies for emission control have to be explored. The application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) as a means to perform exhaust gas after-treatment is one such promising technology. In several publications dealing with NTP exhaust gas after-treatment the plasma state was generated via dielectric barrier discharges. Another way to generate a NTP is by a corona high-frequency discharge. Hence, in contrast to earlier publications, the experiments in this publication were conducted on an operated series-production Diesel engine with an industrial pilottype corona ignition system.
Journal Article

Formation of Engine Internal NO2: Measures to Control the NO2/NOX Ratio for Enhanced Exhaust After Treatment

The proportion of nitrogen dioxide in the engine-out emissions of a Diesel engine is of great importance for the conversion of the total oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in SCR catalysts. Particularly at lower engine loads and lower exhaust temperatures an increase of the already low NO2/NOX fraction will enhance the SCR operation significantly. For this purpose, the understanding of the NO2 formation during the Diesel combustion and expansion stroke is as substantial as being aware of the different thermodynamic impacts and engine operating parameters that affect the formation process. To determine the influences on the NO2 emission level several variation series were performed on a single-cylinder research engine. Especially the charge dilution parameters like the air-fuel ratio and the EGR rate as well as the injection parameters could be identified to be decisive for the NO2 formation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on CI and SI Combustion Mode with Naphtha Fuels for Stationary Engine Applications

Throughout the world cost-efficient Naphtha streams are available in refineries. Owing to less processing, CO2 emissions emitted in the course of production of these fuels are significantly lower than with conventional fuels. In common CI/SI engines, however, the deployment of Naphtha is considerably restricted due to unfavourable fuel properties, e.g. low cetane/octane numbers. Former investigations illustrated high knocking tendency for SI applications and severe pressure rise for CI combustion. Moreover, the focus of past publications was on passenger vehicle applications. Hence, this paper centers on heavy-duty stationary engine applications. Consequently, measures to increase the technically feasible IMEP with regard to limitations in knocking behaviour and pressure rise were explored whilst maintaining efficient combustion and low emissions.
Journal Article

Development of a NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst Based Min-NOx Strategy for Small-Scale NG-Fueled Gas Engines

One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of Soot Formation Mechanisms and Possible Countermeasures on a Turbocharged Port Fuel Injection SI Engine

Despite the known benefits of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines, port fuel injection (PFI) remains a highly relevant injection concept, especially for cost-sensitive market segments. Since particulate number (PN) emissions limits can be expected also for PFI SI engines in future emission legislations, it is necessary to understand the soot formation mechanisms and possible countermeasures. Several experimental studies demonstrated an advantage for PFI SI engines in terms of PN emissions compared to DI. In this paper an extended focus on higher engine loads for future test cycles or real driving emissions testing (RDE) is applied. The combination of operating parameter studies and optical analysis by high-speed video endoscopy on a four-cylinder turbocharged SI engine allows for a profound understanding of relevant soot formation mechanisms.
Journal Article

High-Speed Imaging of Early Flame Growth in Spark-Ignited Engines Using Different Imaging Systems via Endoscopic and Full Optical Access

This work investigates the image quality achievable with a large-aperture endoscope system and high-speed cameras in terms of detecting the premixed flame boundary in spark-ignited engines by chemiluminescence imaging. The study is an extension of our previous work on endoscopic flame imaging [SAE 2014-01-1178]. In the present work, two different high-speed camera systems were used together with the endoscope system in two production engines to quantify the time-resolved flame propagation. The systems were cinematography with a CMOS-camera, both with and without an intensifier, the latter variation being used in a four-cylinder automotive engine as well as in a single-cylinder motorcycle engine. An algorithm with automatic dynamic thresholding was developed to detect the line-of-sight projected flame boundary despite artifacts caused by the spark and the large dynamic range in image brightness across each time series.
Technical Paper

Soot Model Calibration Based on Laser Extinction Measurements

In this work a detailed soot model based on stationary flamelets is used to simulate soot emissions of a reactive Diesel spray. In order to represent soot formation and oxidation processes properly, a calibration of the soot reaction rates has to be performed. This model calibration is usually performed on basis of engine out soot measurements. Contrary to this, in this work the soot model is calibrated on local soot concentrations along the spray axis obtained from laser extinction chamber measurements. The measurements are performed with B7 certification Diesel and a series production multihole injector to obtain engine similar boundary conditions. In order to ensure that the flow and mixture field is captured well by the CFD-simulation, the simulated liquid penetration lengths and flame lift-off lengths are compared to chamber measurements.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic and Optical Investigations on Particle Emissions in a DISI Engine at Boosted Operation

The subject of this paper is the reduction of the particle number emissions of a gasoline DI engine at high engine load (1.4 MPa IMEP). To reduce the particle number emissions, several parameters are investigated: the large scale charge motion (baseline configuration, tumble and swirl) can be varied at the single cylinder engine by using inlays in the intake port. The amount of residual gas can be influenced by the exhaust backpressure. By using a throttle valve, the exhaust backpressure can be set equal to the intake pressure and hence simulate a turbocharger's turbine in the exhaust system or the throttle valve can be wide open and thus simulate an engine using a supercharger. Additionally, higher fuel injection pressure can help to enhance mixture formation and thus decrease particulate formation. Therefore, a solenoid injector with a maximum pressure of 30 MPa is used in this work.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations of a DISI Engine in Transient Operation with Regard to Particle and Gaseous Engine-out Emissions

The investigation of transient engine operation plays a key role of the future challenges for individual mobility in terms of real driving emissions (RDE). A fundamental investigation of the transient engine operation requires the simultaneous application of measurement technologies for an integrated study of mixture formation, combustion process and emission formation. The major prerequisite is the combustion cycle and crank angle resolved analysis of the process for at least several individual consecutive combustion cycles during transient operation. The investigations are performed with a multi cylinder DISI engine at an Engine-in-the-Loop test bench, able to operate the engine in driving cycles as well as within target profiles (e.g. speed and torque profiles). The research project describes the methodology of analyzing elementary transient operational phases, (e.g. different variants of load steps).
Journal Article

Investigations on the Heat Transfer in a Single Cylinder Research SI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

In this work, heat loss was investigated in homogeneous and stratified DI-SI operation mode in a single cylinder research engine. Several thermocouples were adapted to the combustion chamber surfaces. The crank angle resolved temperature oscillations at the cylinder head and piston surface could thereby be measured in homogeneous and stratified operation mode. A grasshopper linkage was designed and adapted to the engine, to transfer the piston signals to the data acquisition device. The design of the experimental apparatus is described briefly. For both operation modes the average steady-state temperatures of the combustion chamber surfaces were compared. The temperature distribution along the individual sensor positions at the cylinder head and piston surface are shown. Furthermore, the curves of the crank angle resolved temperature oscillations in stratified and homogeneous operation mode were compared.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Composition on Exhaust Emissions of a DISI Engine during Catalyst Heating Operation

Particle number measurements during different real world and legislative driving cycles show that catalyst heating, cold and transient engine operation cause increased particle number emissions. In this context the quality of mixture formation as a result of injector characteristics, in-cylinder flow, operation & engine parameters and fuel composition is a major factor. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the influence of different biogenic and alkylate fuels on the gaseous and particle number emission behavior during catalyst heating operation on a single-cylinder DISI engine. The engine is operated with a late ignition timing causing a high exhaust enthalpy flow to heat up the catalyst, a slightly lean global air fuel ratio to avoid high hydrocarbon emissions and a late injection right before the ignition to reduce the coefficient of variance of the indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Natural Gas Combustion in a Single Cylinder SI Engine and Impact of Charge Dilution by Means of EGR

In this paper experimental results of a medium duty single cylinder research engine with spark ignition are presented. The engine was operated with stoichiometric natural gas combustion and additional charge dilution by means of external and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first part of this work considers the benefits of cooled EGR on thermo-mechanical stress of the engine including exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, and knock behaviour. This is followed by the analysis of the influence of cooled EGR on the heat release rate. In this context the impact of fuel gas composition is also under investigation. The influence of increasing EGR on fuel efficiency, which is caused by a changed combustion process due to higher fractions of inert gases, is shown in this section. By application of different pistons a relationship between the piston bowl geometry and the flame propagation has been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Phenomenological Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

A phenomenological model for heat release rate predictions taking into account the characteristic processes inside a direct injection gasoline engine is presented. Fuel evaporation and preparation as well as the specifics of premixed and mixing controlled combustion phase are regarded. Only a few model constants need to be set which have been fit empirically for the application in a one-cylinder research engine. This jet guided direct injection gasoline engine employs a modern common-rail injection system and runs predominantly in stratified mode. The model allows the prediction of the influence of numerous parameter variations, e.g. injection-ignition phasing, load, engine speed, swirl, etc. on the combustion process. Furthermore efficient simulations can be carried out without using expensive three-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

The physical behavior of the combustion process in a jet-guided direct injection spark ignition engine has been investigated with three different measurement techniques. These are flame visualization by use of endoscopy, ion-current sensing at 16 different locations in the combustion chamber and the estimation of the flame temperature as well as soot concentration based on multi-wavelength-pyrometry. The results of all these measurement techniques are in good agreement between each other and give a coherent picture of the physical behavior of the combustion process and make it possible to characterize the main influence parameters on combustion. This serves as a basis for validation and improvement of simulation tools for the engine thermodynamics and combustion.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation in a Direct Injected Spark Ignition Engine

We have performed simulations and experiments to characterize the mixture formation in spray-guided direct injected spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines and to help to understand features of the combustion process, which are characteristic for this engine concept. The 3-D computations are based on the KIVA 3 code, in which basic submodels of spray processes have been systematically modified at ETH during the last years. In this study, the break-up model for the hollow-cone spray typical for DISI engines has been validated through an extended comparison with both shadowgraphs and Mie-scattering results in a high-pressure-high-temperature, constant volume combustion cell at ambient conditions relevant for DISI operation, with and without significant droplet evaporation. Computational results in a single-cylinder research engine have been then obtained at a given engine speed for varying load (fuel mass per stroke), swirl and fuel injection pressure.