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Standard

Measurement of Vehicle and Suspension Parameters for Directional Control Studies

2018-01-02
CURRENT
J1574/1_201801
The parameters measured according to this SAE Recommended Practice will generally be used in simulating directional control performance in the linear range. (The “linear range” is the steady-state lateral acceleration below which steering wheel angle can generally be considered to be linearly related to lateral acceleration.) But they may be used for certain other simulations (such as primary ride motions), vehicle and suspension characterization and comparison, suspension development and optimization, and processing of road test data. This document is intended to apply to passenger cars, light trucks, and on-highway recreational and commercial vehicles, both non-articulated and articulated. Measurement techniques are intended to apply to these vehicles, with alterations primarily in the scale of facilities required.
Standard

Measurement of Vehicle and Suspension Parameters for Directional Control Studies - Rationale

2018-01-02
CURRENT
J1574/2_201801
This SAE Information Report presents the background and rationale for SAE J1574-1. The motor vehicle industry is working toward a more complete understanding of the factors affecting the motions of vehicles on the roadway, by using a variety of techniques that predict responses to road and operator inputs. The capability to predict responses is desirable so that vehicles can be designed for optimum safety and utility. In addition to the force and moment properties of the pneumatic tires, a number of vehicle and suspension parameters affect the response of the vehicle; these include weight, center-of-gravity location, moments of inertia, suspension ride and roll rates, suspension kinematic and compliance properties, and shock absorber characteristics. These parameters must be quantified in order to predict vehicle responses. Measurement of most of these parameters will be limited to determining their values in the linear range for use in directional control simulations.
Standard

Automotive Stability Enhancement Systems

2017-11-14
CURRENT
J2564_201711
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to describe currently known automotive active stability enhancement systems, as well as identify common names which can be used to refer to the various systems and common features and functions of the various systems. The primary systems discussed are: ABS - Antilock Brake Systems TCS - Traction Control Systems ESC - Electronic Stability Control The document is technical in nature and attempts to remain neutral regarding unique features that individual system or vehicle manufacturers may provide.
Standard

Tire Quasi-Static Envelopment of Triangular/Step Cleats Test

2017-11-10
WIP
J2705
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining properties of a non-rolling tire quasi-statically enveloping either a set of triangular cleats or a single step cleat. In the case of the triangular cleats the normal force and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. In the case of the step cleats the normal force, longitudinal force, and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly sized to correctly conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are intended for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Tests to Define Tire Size (Geometry), Mass, and Inertias

2017-11-10
WIP
J2717
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a trio of test methods which determine basic tire size (geometry), mass, and moments of inertia. The methods apply to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular surfaces paved or unpaved. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the surface on which the tire is operating are not considered.
Standard

Low Speed Enveloping Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2017-11-10
WIP
J2731
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a spindle when a tire rolls over a rectangular obstacle, cleat, at very low speed. The cleat used in a particular test condition is configured with its crest either perpendicular, 90°, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides cleat envelopment force and moment and tire angular position histories as functions of distance traveled. These histories are essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.
Standard

Modal Testing and Identification of Lower Order Tire Natural Frequencies of Radial Tires

2017-09-19
CURRENT
J2710_201709
This SAE Recommended Practice describes test methods for measuring and identifying the natural frequencies for the lower order modes of an inflated radial tire with a fixed spindle while expending modest effort and employing a minimum of test equipment. The methods apply to any size of radial tire so long as the test equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. Two types of boundary conditions are considered for the tire: unloaded and loaded against a flat surface. The test involves the performance and measurement of an input vibratory force (excitation) to the tire and the corresponding vibratory output (response). The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE 1—The focus of this standard is identification and reporting of the lower order natural frequencies of the tire using a simple test procedure.
Standard

Tire Normal Force/Deflection and Gross Footprint Dimension Test

2017-09-05
CURRENT
J2704_201709
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining the vertical force and deflection properties of a non-rolling tire and the associated contact patch length and width. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Test for Tire Quasi-Static Longitudinal Force versus Longitudinal Displacement and Quasi-Static Lateral Force versus Lateral Force

2017-09-05
CURRENT
J2718_201709
This SAE Recommended Practice describes application of two closely related test procedures, which together determine the linear range longitudinal and lateral stiffnesses of a statically loaded non-rotating tire. The procedures apply to any tire so long as the equipment is properly sized to correctly conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Subjective Rating Scale for Vehicle Ride and Handling

2016-09-23
CURRENT
J1441_201609
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a rating scale for subjective evaluation of vehicle ride and handling. The scale is applicable for the evaluation of specific vehicle ride and handling properties, for specified maneuvers, road characteristics and driving conditions, on proving ground and public roads. The validity of the evaluation is restricted to the individual ride and handling disciplines defined by these maneuvers and to the particular combination of conditions of the vehicle (e.g., equipment, degree of maintenance) and of the environment (e.g., road, weather). This rating scale may not be suitable for some applications, such as specific types of ride or handling qualities, driver populations and market segments, or for correlating with objective measures. Appendix A - Other Scales discusses rating scales that better suit such applications.
Standard

Vehicle Dynamics Terminology

2015-12-31
WIP
J670
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
Standard

Road Load Tire Model Validation Procedures for Dynamic Behavior

2014-02-17
CURRENT
J2812_201402
This SAE Recommended Practice describes an evaluation procedure for validating tire models for use in road load simulations and assesses the relevant dynamic behavior of tires. The laboratory test utilized is a “cleat” test, where a rolling tire on a drum encounters a cleat and the resulting dynamic forces and moments are measured. This test is described in SAE J2730, “Dynamic Cleat Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats”. The test is commonly used to identify tire model parameters. In this recommended practice, requirements for the measurement of the tire’s response are described along with data processing techniques and calculations used to quantitatively compare the tire model’s calculated response to the tire’s response measured on test. This recommended practice addresses both the tire model structure and its parameters.
Standard

Ride Index Structure and Development Methodology

2013-10-22
CURRENT
J2834_201310
This recommended practice defines methods for the measurement of periodic, random and transient whole-body vibration. It indicates the principal factors that combine to determine the degree to which a vibration exposure will cause discomfort. Informative appendices indicate the current state of knowledge and provide guidance on the possible effects of motion and vibration on discomfort. The frequency range considered is 0.5 Hz to 80 Hz. This recommended practice also defines the principles of preferred methods of mounting transducers for determining human exposure. This recommended practice is applicable to light passenger vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks). This recommended practice is applicable to motions transmitted to the human body as a whole through the buttocks, back and feet of a seated occupant, as well as through the hands of a driver.
Standard

Dynamic Cleat Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2013-09-05
CURRENT
J2730_201309
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a high frequency response spindle when a rolling tire impacts a cleat. The cleat is configured either with its crest perpendicular, 90°, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides impact force and moment time histories essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development.
Standard

Tire Quasi-Static Envelopment of Triangular/Step Cleats Test

2012-11-06
CURRENT
J2705_201211
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for determining properties of a non-rolling tire quasi-statically enveloping either a set of triangular cleats or a single step cleat. In the case of the triangular cleats the normal force and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. In the case of the step cleats the normal force, longitudinal force, and vertical deflection of the non-rolling tire are determined. The method applies to any tire so long as the equipment is properly sized to correctly conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.1 The data are intended for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular pavements. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the pavement are not considered.
Standard

Measurement of Vehicle and Suspension Parameters for Directional Control Studies

2012-10-05
HISTORICAL
J1574/1_201210
The parameters measured according to this SAE Recommended Practice will generally be used in simulating directional control performance in the linear range. (The “linear range” is the steady-state lateral acceleration below which steering wheel angle can generally be considered to be linearly related to lateral acceleration.) But they may be used for certain other simulations (such as primary ride motions), vehicle and suspension characterization and comparison, suspension development and optimization, and processing of road test data. This document is intended to apply to passenger cars, light trucks, and on-highway recreational and commercial vehicles, both non-articulated and articulated. Measurement techniques are intended to apply to these vehicles, with alterations primarily in the scale of facilities required.
Standard

Measurement of Vehicle and Suspension Parameters for Directional Control Studies - Rationale

2012-10-05
HISTORICAL
J1574/2_201210
This SAE Information Report presents the background and rationale for SAE J1574-1. The motor vehicle industry is working toward a more complete understanding of the factors affecting the motions of vehicles on the roadway, by using a variety of techniques that predict responses to road and operator inputs. The capability to predict responses is desirable so that vehicles can be designed for optimum safety and utility. In addition to the force and moment properties of the pneumatic tires, a number of vehicle and suspension parameters affect the response of the vehicle; these include weight, center-of-gravity location, moments of inertia, suspension ride and roll rates, suspension kinematic and compliance properties, and shock absorber characteristics. These parameters must be quantified in order to predict vehicle responses. Measurement of most of these parameters will be limited to determining their values in the linear range for use in directional control simulations.
Standard

Tests to Define Tire Size (Geometry), Mass, and Inertias

2012-06-21
CURRENT
J2717_201206
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a trio of test methods which determine basic tire size (geometry), mass, and moments of inertia. The methods apply to any tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over irregular surfaces paved or unpaved. Within the context of this Recommended Practice, forces applied to the surface on which the tire is operating are not considered.
Standard

Low Speed Enveloping Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

2012-05-23
CURRENT
J2731_201205
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a spindle when a tire rolls over a rectangular obstacle, cleat, at very low speed. The cleat used in a particular test condition is configured with its crest either perpendicular, 90°, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides cleat envelopment force and moment and tire angular position histories as functions of distance traveled. These histories are essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire.
Standard

Modal Testing and Identification of Lower Order Tire Natural Frequencies of Radial Tires

2012-04-12
HISTORICAL
J2710_201204
This SAE Recommended Practice describes test methods for measuring and identifying the natural frequencies for the lower order modes of an inflated radial tire with a fixed spindle while expending modest effort and employing a minimum of test equipment. The methods apply to any size of radial tire so long as the test equipment is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. Two types of boundary conditions are considered for the tire: unloaded and loaded against a flat surface. The test involves the performance and measurement of an input vibratory force (excitation) to the tire and the corresponding vibratory output (response). The data are suitable for use in determining parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and development. NOTE 1—The focus of this standard is identification and reporting of the lower order natural frequencies of the tire using a simple test procedure.
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