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Standard

Driving Assessment (DA) Metrics for Automated Driving Systems

2024-03-13
WIP
J3237
This SAE Recommended Practice provides definitions, taxonomy, and characteristics for DA metrics used to quantify the driving performance of ADS-operated vehicles. Here, the primary focus is on the safety-related driving performance, which is considered to be related to completion of the dynamic driving task (DDT) . Driving performance is a subset of overall operational performance of ADS-operated vehicles. Thus, assessments of cybersecurity, maintenance, interactions with passengers, etc., while important, are out of scope for this document. Note that the DA metrics do not specify the actions and/or maneuvers to be executed by the subject vehicle. A literature review of DA metrics that have been proposed and, in some cases, used in previous studies was conducted. From this literature review, a set of DA metrics has been created with example usage. Evidence of prior research indicating that a metric has a relationship with safety outcome(s) is included where applicable.
Standard

Automated Driving System Test Facility Safety Practices

2024-03-12
CURRENT
J3247_202403
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidance for test facilities in identifying potential hazards, and safety risks, along with requirements and recommendations related specifically to testing of automated driving systems (ADS) and ADS-operated vehicles. Herein after, for the purposes of this document, utilization of the term “test facilities” implies those conducting testing of ADS or ADS-operated vehicles, unless otherwise noted. References made to safety within this recommended practice apply only to test method safety and driving safety on and during testing at an ADS test facility and do not apply to vehicle design or safety performance. Safety practices for on-road testing, operation, and related deployment are not covered within this document.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2023-03-24
WIP
J3016
This document describes [motor] vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis. It provides a taxonomy with detailed definitions for six levels of driving automation, ranging from no driving automation (Level 0) to full driving automation (Level 5), in the context of [motor] vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways:Level 0: No Driving AutomationLevel 1: Driver AssistanceLevel 2: Partial Driving AutomationLevel 3: Conditional Driving AutomationLevel 4: High Driving AutomationLevel 5: Full Driving AutomationThese level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on [motor] vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner.
Standard

Safety-Relevant Guidance for On-Road Testing of Prototype Automated Driving System (ADS)-Operated Vehicles

2023-03-06
WIP
J3018
Expanded scope: This document provides safety-relevant guidance for the public road testing of prototype level ADS-operated vehicles encompassing safety management planning for the vehicle, vehicle operations and the organization. Included within the planning will be in-vehicle/remote fallback test driver selection and training, operational safety metrics, emergency action planning, interaction with First/Second Responders and hazard identification and risk mitigation. Original J3018 scope:This document provides preliminary safety-relevant guidance for in-vehicle fallback test driver training and for on-road testing of vehicles being operated by prototype conditional, high, and full (Levels 3 to 5) ADS, as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for evaluating the performance of post-production ADS-equipped vehicles.
Standard

Ontology and Lexicon for Automated Driving System (ADS)-Operated Vehicle Behaviors and Maneuvers in Routine/Normal Operating Scenarios

2023-01-13
CURRENT
J3164_202301
This document provides a high-level ontology and lexicon for describing on-road ADS-operated vehicle behavioral competencies and driving maneuvers that comprise routine/normal performance of the complete DDT, as defined in SAE J3016. It provides definitions of behavior, maneuver, scenario, and scene. This initial high-level lexicon and ontology are developed for ADS driving behaviors, including considerations for hierarchy of behaviors, and relationships among maneuvers, operational design domain (ODD) elements, and object and event detection and response (OEDR). Considerations for describing scenarios using this lexicon and ontology are discussed. This document describes ADS-operated vehicle motion control maneuvers during routine/normal operation. Maneuvers of other road users are not evaluated. This document assumes left-hand drive vehicles and road infrastructure.
Standard

Best Practices for Developing and Validating Simulations for Automated Driving Systems

2022-04-04
WIP
J3279
This document describes best practices for developing and validating simulations in support of ADS for on-road motor vehicles, as well as validation of ADS models. However, this document will not address the various approaches and considerations for developing an ADS model as this topic is addressed primarily in SAE J2998. Similarly, this document will not specify types of simulations needed for a given system as this is dependent on the system developer as well as simulations where the ADS model (or parts thereof) can be utilized but are not the system under test. Conversely, this Information Report describes best practices related to taxonomies of ADS simulations (e.g., driver-in-the-loop, vehicle-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, etc.). In addition, ADS simulations referenced within this document can be utilized during different phases of a systems engineering lifecycle or product development lifecycle (e.g., design, development, testing, production, operations, maintenance).
Standard

Definitions for Terms Related to Automated Driving Systems Reference Architecture

2022-03-02
CURRENT
J3131_202203
The terms and definitions in this document describe the functions performed within an ADS, as defined in SAE J3016. Where possible we have attempted to capture the language that is already in use within the automated driving development community. Where needed, we have added new terms and definitions, including clarifying notes to avoid ambiguity. SAE J3131 deals primarily with Level 4 and Level 5 ADS features.
Standard

Resources for accommodating the needs of persons with disabilities when using ADS-DVs

2021-07-28
WIP
J3261
This document will provide a compendium of resources, ordered by type of disability (including combinations thereof), for engineers to use in the design and development of ADS-DV interfaces, safety systems, and mobility accommodations. These resources will range from documents issued by standards-development organizations, to relevant research reports, and the published results of expert interviews and focus groups conducted with persons with disabilities. It will also consider pre- and pick-up considerations, as well as drop-off and post-drop off considerations.
Standard

Taxonomy & Definitions for Operational Design Domain (ODD) for Driving Automation Systems

2021-07-15
WIP
J3259
Per SAE J3016 (2021), the Operational Design Domain (ODD) for a driving automation system is defined as “Operating conditions under which a given driving automation system, or feature thereof, is specifically designed to function, including, but not limited to, environmental, geographical, and time-of-day restrictions, and/or the requisite presence or absence of certain traffic or roadway characteristics.”; in short the ODD defines the limits within which the driving automation system is designed to operate, and as such, will only operate when the parameters described within the ODD are satisfied.. This information Report serves to provide terminology, definitions and taxonomy for use in describing an ODD and respective elements for a driving automation system. This classification and definition of a harmonized set of ODD elements is based on the collection and analysis of existing information from multiple sources.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definition of Safety Principles for Automated Driving System (ADS)

2021-07-07
CURRENT
J3206_202107
This SAE Information Report classifies and defines a harmonized set of safety principles intended to be considered by ADS and ADS-equipped vehicle development stakeholders. The set of safety principles herein is based on the collection and analysis of existing information from multiple entities, reflecting the content and spirit of their efforts, including: SAE ITC AVSC Best Practices CAMP Automated Vehicle Research for Enhanced Safety - Final Report RAND Report - Measuring Automated Vehicle Safety: Forging a Framework U.S. DOT: Automated Driving Systems 2.0 - A Vision for Safety Safety First for Automated Driving (SaFAD) UNECE WP29 amendment proposal UNECE/TRANS/WP.29/GRVA/2019/13 On a Formal Model of Safe and Scalable Self-Driving Cars (Intel RSS model) SAE J3018 This SAE Information Report provides guidance for the consideration and application of the safety principles for the development and deployment of ADS and ADS-equipped vehicles.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2021-04-30
CURRENT
J3016_202104
This document describes [motor] vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis. It provides a taxonomy with detailed definitions for six levels of driving automation, ranging from no driving automation (Level 0) to full driving automation (Level 5), in the context of [motor] vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways: Level 0: No Driving Automation Level 1: Driver Assistance Level 2: Partial Driving Automation Level 3: Conditional Driving Automation Level 4: High Driving Automation Level 5: Full Driving Automation These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on [motor] vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner.
Standard

Safety-Relevant Guidance for On-Road Testing of Prototype Automated Driving System (ADS)-Operated Vehicles

2020-12-04
CURRENT
J3018_202012
This document provides preliminary1 safety-relevant guidance for in-vehicle fallback test driver training and for on-road testing of vehicles being operated by prototype conditional, high, and full (Levels 3 to 5) ADS, as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for evaluating the performance of post-production ADS-equipped vehicles. Moreover, this guidance only addresses testing of ADS-operated vehicles as overseen by in-vehicle fallback test drivers (IFTD). These guidelines do not address: Remote driving, including remote fallback test driving of prototype ADS-operated test vehicles in driverless operation. (Note: The term “remote fallback test driver” is included as a defined term herein and is intended to be addressed in a future iteration of this document. However, at this time, too little is published or known about this type of testing to provide even preliminary guidance.)
Standard

Identifying Automated Driving Systems-Dedicated Vehicles (ADS-DVs) Passenger Issues for Persons with Disabilities

2019-11-19
CURRENT
J3171_201911
It is expected that Level 4 and 5 automated driving systems-dedicated vehicles (ADS-DVs) will eventually enable persons to travel at will who are otherwise unable to obtain a driver's license for a conventional vehicle, namely, persons with certain visual, cognitive, and/or physical impairments. This information report focuses on these disabilities, but also provides guidance for those with other disabilities. This report is limited to fleet operated on-demand shared mobility scenarios, as this is widely considered to be the first way people will be able to interact with ADS-DVs. To be more specific, this report does not address fixed route transit services or private vehicle ownership. Similarly, this report is focused on road-worthy vehicles; not scooters, golf carts, etc.
Standard

Safety-Relevant Guidance for On-Road Testing of SAE Level 3, 4, and 5 Prototype Automated Driving System (ADS)-Operated Vehicles

2019-09-04
HISTORICAL
J3018_201909
This document provides safety-relevant guidance for on-road testing of vehicles being operated by prototype conditional, high, and full (Levels 3 to 5) ADS, as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for evaluating the performance of post-production ADS-equipped vehicles. Moreover, this guidance only addresses testing of ADS-operated vehicles as overseen by in-vehicle fallback test drivers (IFTD). These guidelines do not address: Remote driving, including remote fallback test driving of prototype ADS-operated test vehicles in driverless operation. (Note: The term “remote fallback test driver” is included as a defined term herein and is intended to be addressed in a future iteration of this document. However, at this time, too little is published or known about this type of testing to provide even preliminary guidance.)
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2018-06-15
HISTORICAL
J3016_201806
This SAE Recommended Practice describes motor vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis. It provides a taxonomy with detailed definitions for six levels of driving automation, ranging from no driving automation (level 0) to full driving automation (level 5), in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways. These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on motor vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2016-09-30
HISTORICAL
J3016_201609
This Recommended Practice provides a taxonomy for motor vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis and that range in level from no driving automation (level 0) to full driving automation (level 5). It provides detailed definitions for these six levels of driving automation in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways. These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on motor vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner.
Standard

Guidelines for Safe On-Road Testing of SAE Level 3, 4, and 5 Prototype Automated Driving Systems (ADS)

2015-03-13
HISTORICAL
J3088_201708
This document provides guidelines for the safe conduct of on-road tests of vehicles equipped with prototype conditional, high, and full (levels 3-5) automated driving systems (ADSs), as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for testing production ADSs intended for sale to the general public. The scope is further limited to testing of automated prototype vehicles on public roads. These guidelines do not address: Testing of driver assist (Level 1) or partial (Level 2) automation systems, which rely on a human driver to monitor the environment. (See SAE J3016 for Definitions of Levels of Automated Systems.) Closed-course testing. Component-level testing. The precise regime of road testing for a particular prototype will depend on the intended level of automation and the targeted capabilities of the prototype (see SAE J3016 for more information).
Standard

Guidelines for Safe On-Road Testing of SAE Level 3, 4, and 5 Prototype Automated Driving Systems (ADS)

2015-03-13
HISTORICAL
J3018_201503
This document provides guidelines for the safe conduct of on-road tests of vehicles equipped with prototype conditional, high, and full (levels 3-5) automated driving systems (ADSs), as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for testing production ADSs intended for sale to the general public. The scope is further limited to testing of automated prototype vehicles on public roads. These guidelines do not address: Testing of driver assist (Level 1) or partial (Level 2) automation systems, which rely on a human driver to monitor the environment. (See SAE J3016 for Definitions of Levels of Automated Systems.) Closed-course testing. Component-level testing. The precise regime of road testing for a particular prototype will depend on the intended level of automation and the targeted capabilities of the prototype (see SAE J3016 for more information).
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems

2014-01-16
HISTORICAL
J3016_201401
This Information Report provides a taxonomy for motor vehicle automation ranging in level from no automation to full automation. However, it provides detailed definitions only for the highest three levels of automation provided in the taxonomy (namely, conditional, high and full automation) in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on public roadways. These latter levels of advanced automation refer to cases in which the dynamic driving task is performed entirely by an automated driving system during a given driving mode or trip. Popular, media, and legislative references to “autonomous” or “self-driving” vehicles encompass some or all of these levels of automation. These definitions can be used to describe the automation of (1) on-road vehicles, (2) particular systems within those vehicles, and (3) the operation of those vehicles.
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