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Helicopter Engine/Airframe Interface Document and Checklist

2022-06-27
CURRENT
ARP1507B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides a guide for the preparation of a helicopter engine/airframe interface document and checklist. This document and checklist should identify the information needed by the engine manufacturer and the aircraft manufacturer to integrate the engine design with the aircraft design and either provide this information or give reference to where this information is located. The intent is to assure that the engine manufacturer and the airframe manufacturer identify and make provision for this information so it can be easily accessible to either manufacturer as needed in the development stages of an engine-airframe integration project.
Standard

Cockpit Information Required for Helicopter Turbine Engine Operation and Maintenance

2022-03-29
WIP
AIR1963B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies Propulsion EngineerÕs recommendations for the instrumentation that is required for the safe operation and maintenance of turbine engines as installed in helicopters. It should be used as a guide for cockpit layout, as well as a reference for maintenance considerations throughout the propulsion area. Propulsion instruments should receive attention early in the design phase of the helicopter. Maintenance and diagnostics recorders are not considered within the scope of this document. (See ARP1587, "Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Monitoring System Guide".)
Standard

Helicopter Fuel Economy Evaluation

2022-02-23
WIP
AS1516A
The purpose of this standard is to provide a method of evaluating helicopter fuel economy which accounts for the significant technical variables in helicopter and powerplant design.
Standard

Helicopter Mission Definition

2022-02-23
WIP
ARP1352A
The purpose of this recommended practice is to establish a standard format for the presentation of helicopter mission data, which will provide data required to establish airframe and/or engine component life.
Standard

Oil Systems for Helicopter Powerplants

2022-01-13
WIP
AIR4281A
Turbine engines installed in helicopters require a highly sophisticated oil system to fulfill two tasks: a. Cooling/oil supply b. Lubrication. While lubrication is an engine internal procedure, cooling and oil supply require more or less design activity on the aircraft side of the engine/airframe interface for proper engine function, depending on the engine type. The necessity for engine cooling and oil supply provisions on the airframe can lead to interface problems because the helicopter manufacturer can influence engine related functions due to the design of corresponding oil system components. This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) deals with integration of engine oil systems with the airframe and gives information for both helicopter and engine manufacturers for a better understanding of interface requirements.
Standard

Defining and Measuring Factors Affecting Helicopter Turbine Engine Power Available

2021-10-01
CURRENT
ARP1702B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) identifies and defines a method of measuring those factors affecting installed power available for helicopter powerplants. These factors are installation losses, accessory power extraction, and operational effects. Accurate determination of these factors is vital in the calculation of helicopter performance as described in the RFM. It is intended that the methods presented herein prescribe and define each factor as well as an approach to measuring said factor. Only basic installations of turboshaft engines in helicopters are considered. Although the methods described may apply in principle to other configurations that lead to more complex installation losses, such as an inlet particle separator, inlet barrier filter (with or without a bypass system), or infrared suppressor, specialized or individual techniques may be required in these cases for the determination and definition of engine installation losses.
Standard

ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR ROTORCRAFT

2021-03-11
CURRENT
ARP4056
Turbine engines installed in rotorcraft have an exhaust system that is designed and produced by the aircraft manufacturer. The primary function of the exhaust system is to direct hot exhaust gases away from the airframe. The exhaust system may consist of a tailpipe, which is attached to the engine, and an exhaust fairing, which is part of the rotorcraft. The engine manufacturer specifies a baseline "referee" tailpipe design, and guaranteed engine performance is based upon the use of the referee tailpipe and tailpipe exit diameter. The configuration used on the rotocraft may differ from the referee tailpipe, but it is intended to minimize additional losses attributed to the installation. This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the physical, functional, and performance interfaces to be considered in the design of the aircraft exhaust system.
Standard

EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER TURBINE ENGINE LINEAR VIBRATION ENVIRONMENT

2021-03-11
CURRENT
AIR1289A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines a recommended procedure for evaluation of the vibration environment to which the gas turbine engine powerplant is subjected in the helicopter installation. This analysis of engine vibration is normally demonstrated on a one-time basis upon initial certification, or after a major modification, of an engine/helicopter configuration. This AIR deals with linear vibration as measured on the basic case structure of the engine and not, for example, torsional vibration in drive shafting or vibration of a component within the engine such as a compressor or turbine airfoil. In summary, this AIR discusses the engine manufacturer’s "Installation Test Code" aspects of engine vibration and proposes an appropriate measurement method.
Standard

Helicopter Engine-Rotor System Compatibility

2021-03-10
CURRENT
ARP704A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends a methodology to be used for the design, analysis and test evaluation of modern helicopter gas turbine propulsion system stability and transient response characteristics. This methodology utilizes the computational power of modern digital computers to more thoroughly analyze, simulate and bench-test the helicopter engine/rotor system speed control loop over the flight envelope. This up-front work results in significantly less effort expended during flight test and delivers a more effective system into service. The methodology presented herein is recommended for modern digital electronic propulsion control systems and also for traditional analog and hydromechanical systems.
Standard

Rotorcraft Installed Power Available Verification

2020-12-02
WIP
AIR6920
This document presents Flight Test Techniques, Data Analysis Methods, and Reporting examples related to installed turbine Power Available and Power Assurance demonstrations as required by CFR Title 14 Part 29.45(c) and (f).
Standard

CONCURRENT DESIGN OF ENGINES AND SPECIFICATIONS OF STARTING SYSTEMS FOR HELICOPTERS

2020-01-31
CURRENT
AIR1296
It is recommended that all helicopter engine development programs include an evaluation of engine starting requirements. The evaluation should include starting requirement effects on helicopter weight, cost, and mission effectiveness. The evaluation should be appropriate to the engine stage of development.
Standard

HELICOPTER TURBINE ENGINE WASH

2020-01-31
CURRENT
AIR4416
Engines subject to dust, industrial pollution, saltwater contamination or other chemically laden atmosphere (including pesticides and herbicides) lose performance due to deposits of contaminants on surfaces in the aidgas flow path. Engine wash and engine rinse procedures are utilized to restore turbine engine performance. These procedures are generated by the engine manufacturer and are included in the Engine Maintenance/Service Manuals. For most turbine engines these procedures are similar in concept and practice; however, application details, choice of solvents and many other service features can vary from engine manufacturer to engine manufacturer and may even vary within the range of engine models produced by any manufacturer.
Standard

HELICOPTER ENGINE MOUNTING

2020-01-31
CURRENT
AIR4172
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews the requirements to be satisfied by the engine mount systems and provides an outline of some suitable methods. Factors such as drive shaft alignment, engine expansion, mount crashworthiness, vibration isolation, and other effects on the installation are discussed.
Standard

Helicopter Engine Foreign Object Damage

2019-01-28
WIP
AIR4096A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report is to disseminate qualitative information regarding foreign object damage (FOD) to gas turbine engines used to power helicopters and to discuss methods of preventing FOD. Although turbine-powered, fixed-wing aircraft are also subject to FOD, the unique ability of the helicopter to hover above, takeoff from, and land on unprepared areas creates a special need for a separate treatment of this subject as applied to rotary-winged aircraft.
Standard

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ROTORCRAFT INLET BARRIER FILTER INSTALLATIONS

2018-12-04
WIP
AIR6980
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies considerations on power available and inlet distortion for rotorcraft with Inlet Barrier Filter (IBF) installations. This document provides a more in-depth understanding of the physics behind power available and inlet distortion characterization for rotorcraft with Inlet Barrier Filter (IBF) installations, including case studies and calculation examples. It is intended to support the methods of compliance to power available and inlet distortion requirements for rotorcraft with Inlet Barrier Filter (IBF) installations recommended in ARP6912.
Standard

HELICOPTER TURBOSHAFT ENGINE IDLE POWER SCHEDULING

2018-08-09
WIP
AIR4121
The purpose of this AIR (Aerospace Information Report) is to provide aircraft and engine designers with a better understanding of helicopter turboshaft engine idle power characteristics and objectives to be considered in the design process. Idle is the lowest steady state power setting. At this setting, the engine typically does not produce enough power to obtain governed output shaft speed (i.e. the shaft speed is determined by the load imposed by the aircraft). In the aircraft, the engine is typically stabilized at this power setting after starting, prior to taxi and for some period of time after rotor shutdown for cool down prior to engine shutoff. Traditionally, the aircraft designer wants idle power scheduled as low as possible and of course, does not want any resulting aircraft operational difficulties such as overcoming the rotor brake. The engine designer, however, desires a higher scheduled power because of the reduced probability of engine operational problems.
Standard

Substantiation of Power Available and Inlet Distortion Compliance for Rotorcraft Inlet Barrier Filter Installations

2017-03-20
WIP
ARP6912
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) identifies and defines methods of compliance to power available and inlet distortion requirements for rotorcraft with Inlet Barrier Filter (IBF) installations. The advisory material developed therein may be used as acceptable methods of compliance for determining power assurance, establishing power available, and for substantiating acceptable engine inlet distortion for IBF installations. It is agreed to treat dust, ice, salt water & snow as contaminants to IBF for the purpose of establishing power available and distortion. Flight in known icing will be addressed in ARP6901.
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