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A Guide to Extending Times Between Overhaul for Rotorcraft Power Train Transmissions Using Monitoring Data

2020-06-09
CURRENT
AIR6334
Time in Service (TIS), or flight hours, logged in maintenance records against an installed rotorcraft transmission is normally used as the “official” time on wing metric for the transmission’s component wear out inspection interval requirement and, in some instances, retirement change on life limited parts. This AIR addresses traditional methods of transmission TBO extensions and introduces rotorcraft transmission monitoring usage metrics that could be used to modify TIS inspections by tracking torque to determine both loads on life limited parts and component wear. This is a document of the SAE HM-1 Committee intended to be used as a technical information source and is not intended as a legal document or standard. This AIR does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation, past experience, concerns and potential benefits.
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring System, Rotational System Indexing Sensor Specification

2020-04-02
CURRENT
AS5392A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies requirements for the interface between a rotational system indexing sensor and its interface electronics. These sensors generate one or more electrical pulses for each revolution of the shaft being monitored. These pulses can be used to determine the actual shaft rotational speed and/or position for use in a Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). Indexing sensors are used in the following HUMS areas on the aircraft: (a) rotor track and balance, (b) engine vibration monitoring and diagnostics, (c) drive train vibration monitoring and diagnostics. The goal of this standardization effort is to be able to take any compliant indexing sensor and connect it to any compliant interface electronics. These SAE HUMS Interface Specifications include the minimal interface and performance requirements for interoperability with the Rotorcraft Industry Technology Association (RITA) compliant HUMS.
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring System, Blade Tracker Interface Specification

2020-04-02
CURRENT
AS5393A
Blade trackers measure: (a) rotor blade height and (b) lead-lag for use in a Rotor Track and Balance (RT&B) function in a Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). HUMS is a generic term for a system used to measure, monitor, process, and store information relating to the functioning and usage of an aircraft's on-board primary systems, including the engine(s).
Standard

Human Factor Considerations in the Implementation of IVHM

2020-03-20
CURRENT
AIR6915
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) offers information on how human factors should be considered when developing and implementing IVHM capabilities for both military and civil fixed wing aircraft. These considerations will cover the perception, analysis, and action taken by the flight crew and the maintenance personnel in response to outputs from the IVHM system. These outputs would be onboard realtime for the flight crew and post flight for maintenance. This document is not intended to be a guideline; it is intended to provide information that should be considered when designing and implementing future IVHM systems.
Standard

Determination of Cost Benefits from Implementing an Integrated Vehicle Health Management System

2020-03-19
WIP
ARP6275A
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide.
Standard

Guidelines for Writing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

2019-12-03
CURRENT
ARP6883
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance on developing requirements for systems that include Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability [REF1], [REF18]. IVHM is increasingly being implemented on military and commercial aircraft. Some examples include the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) [REF1] and the AH-64 Apache [REF3] in the military domain, and the B787 [REF4] and A350XWB [REF5] in the commercial domain. This document provides a systematic approach for developing requirements related to the IVHM capabilities of a vehicle system. This document is not intended to repeat general guidelines on good requirements writing [REF13], [REF20]. Instead, the focus is on the unique elements, which need to be considered for IVHM and the resulting specific guidelines that will help define better requirements and hence better systems. The multi-faceted nature of IVHM should include the process of requirements gathering.
Standard

IVHM Design Guidelines

2019-07-29
CURRENT
ARP6407
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) capability that will extend the vehicle’s inherent design to enable health management of the platform and its components. This guidance is technology-independent; the principles are generally applicable to the majority of potential IVHM design scenarios, including “clean sheet” system design, where IVHM is considered as a primary design consideration, and the retrofit design, where existing systems are modified and leveraged with the IVHM capability. In either case, this ARP provides guidance for designing the IVHM capability from the feasibility assessment to the conceptual design analysis and to the development design phases, with considerations given to trade studies, metrics, and life cycle impacts.
Standard

Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance Costs A Best Practices Guide

2019-05-07
CURRENT
JA6097_201905
SAE JA6097 (“Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance”) shows how to determine which maintenance to perform on a system when that system requires corrective maintenance to achieve the lowest long-term operating cost. While this document may focus on applications to Jet Engines and Aircraft, this methodology could be applied to nearly any type of system. However, it would be most effective for systems that are tightly integrated, where a failure in any part of the system causes the entire system to go off-line, and the process of accessing a failed component can require additional maintenance on other unrelated components.
Standard

Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) Recommended Practices

2019-04-03
WIP
JA1013
The scope of this document is to clearly lay out the path for an organization to implement a CBM approach to maintenance. The practices will include both CBM in design and in the support phase for fielded equipment.
Standard

Atmospheric Corrosion Monitoring Informational Report

2019-02-11
WIP
AIR6970
This Aerospace Informational Report (AIR) provides guidance on existing environmental and corrosion monitoring technologies for service environments, focusing on parameters of interest, sensing technologies, existing measurement platforms, deployment requirements, and data processing techniques. Non-destructive evaluation tools are not within the scope of this report. The principal motivation of the document is to facilitate users in the specification, selection, and use of monitoring systems for assessing atmospheric corrosion in aerospace applications. The sensors and monitoring systems provide continuous time-based records of: 1) environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and contaminants; 2) measures of alloy corrosion; and 3) protective coating performance.
Standard

Applicable Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Regulations, Policy, and Guidance

2019-01-14
CURRENT
AIR6900
This AIR lists and describes a collection of regulations, policy, and guidance documents applicable to design approval applicants, aircraft operating certificate holders, and maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO) organizations. The aircraft industry should consider these rules when installing IVHM technology for use in aircraft maintenance. This is a starting basis and should not be considered as complete when certification of an IVHM system is expected. The AIR’s objectives are: 1 To set the foundation for aircraft certification applicants seeking to design IVHM solutions as part of the type certificate (TC), supplemental type certificate (STC), amended TC, or amended STC activities; and 2 To set the foundation for aircraft operating certificate holders to engage with regulators to get authorization for using IVHM applications as part of an aircraft maintenance program. NOTE: This AIR’s scope is limited to the United States (U.S.)
Standard

Design & Run-Time Information Exchange for Health-Ready Components

2018-04-02
CURRENT
JA6268_201804
This Surface Vehicle & Aerospace Recommended Practice offers best practices and a methodology by which IVHM functionality relating to components and subsystems should be integrated into vehicle or platform level applications. The intent of the document is to provide practitioners with a structured methodology for specifying, characterizing and exposing the inherent IVHM functionality of a component or subsystem using a common functional reference model, i.e., through the exchange of design-time data and the application of standard vehicle data communications interfaces. This document includes best practices and guidance related to the specification of the information that must be exchanged between the functional layers in the IVHM system or between lower-level components/subsystems and the higher-level control system to enable health monitoring and tracking of system degradation severity.
Standard

Prognostics and Health Management Guidelines for Electro-Mechanical Actuators

2017-09-21
WIP
AIR8012
The purpose of the document is to provide the guidelines of the technological approach for developing a PHM system for EMAs with particular reference to their possible use as primary flight control actuators. It provides a basic description of the physics of the most common degradation processes,a reliability assessment and a discussion on the signals, with the associated data processing, required to build up an effective health monitoring system.
Standard

Use of Health Monitoring Systems to Detect Aircraft Exposure to Volcanic Events

2016-12-13
CURRENT
AIR6212
This document collates the ways and means that existing sensors can identify the platform’s exposure to volcanic ash. The capabilities include real-time detection and estimation, and post flight determinations of exposure and intensity. The document includes results of initiatives with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Transport Canada, various research organizations, Industry and other subject matter experts. The document illustrates the ways that an aircraft can use existing sensors to act as health monitoring tools so as to assess the operational and maintenance effects related to volcanic ash incidents and possibly help determine what remedial action to take after encountering a volcanic ash (VA) event.
Standard

Functional Specification of Miniature Connectors for Health Monitoring Purposes

2016-07-19
CURRENT
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircraft (including harsh environments such as found in propulsion systems). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g., pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE committee for connectors (AE-8C1) to study the feasibility of developing a dedicated connector standard.
Standard

Helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System Accelerometer Interface Specification

2016-06-16
CURRENT
AS5391A
Accelerometers are transducers, or sensors, that convert acceleration into an electrical signal that can be used for airframe, drive, and propulsion system vibration monitoring and analysis within vehicle health and usage monitoring systems. This document defines interface requirements for accelerometers and associated interfacing electronics for use in a helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The purpose is to standardize the accelerometer-to-electronics interface with the intent of increasing interchangeability among HUMS sensors/systems and reducing the cost of HUMS accelerometers. Although this interface was specified with an internally amplified piezoelectric accelerometer in mind for Airframe and Drive Train accelerometers, this does not preclude the use of piezoelectric accelerometer with remote charge amplifier or any other sensor technology that meets the requirements given in this specification.
Standard

IVHM Concepts, Technology and Implementation Overview

2016-03-16
CURRENT
ARP6803
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) examines a comprehensive construct of an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability. This document provides a top-level view of the concepts, technology, and implementation practices associated with IVHM. This keystone document of the SAE HM-1 Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits. Figure 1 provides a document flow map of the documents currently in work or planned by the Committee. The documents shown below will provide the recommended practices for IVHM implementation. This document map reflects the current SAE IVHM document configuration as of the date of publication. Future documents that are released will be included in the flow map in future updates of this document. An indication of the scope of IVHM is diagrammed in Figure 2.
Standard

Determination of Cost Benefits from Implementing an Integrated Vehicle Health Management System

2014-07-07
CURRENT
ARP6275
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide.
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