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Standard

Special Considerations for the Application of IVHM to Autonomous Aircraft and Vehicles

2022-04-11
WIP
JA7214
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance to develop and assure validation and verification of IVHM systems used in autonomous aircraft, vehicles and driver assistance functions. IVHM covers a vehicle, monitoring and data processing functions inherent within its sub-systems, and the tools and processes used to manage and restore the vehicle’s health. The scope of this document is to address challenges and identify recommendations for the application of integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) specifically to intelligent systems performing tasks autonomously within the mobility sector. This document will focus on the core aspects of IVHM for autonomous vehicles that are common to both aerospace and automotive applications. It is anticipated that additional documents will be developed separately to cover aspects of this functionality that are unique to each application domain.
Standard

Helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System Accelerometer Interface Specification

2022-03-02
CURRENT
AS5391A
Accelerometers are transducers, or sensors, that convert acceleration into an electrical signal that can be used for airframe, drive, and propulsion system vibration monitoring and analysis within vehicle health and usage monitoring systems. This document defines interface requirements for accelerometers and associated interfacing electronics for use in a helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The purpose is to standardize the accelerometer-to-electronics interface with the intent of increasing interchangeability among HUMS sensors/systems and reducing the cost of HUMS accelerometers. Although this interface was specified with an internally amplified piezoelectric accelerometer in mind for Airframe and Drive Train accelerometers, this does not preclude the use of piezoelectric accelerometer with remote charge amplifier or any other sensor technology that meets the requirements given in this specification.
Standard

Use of Health Monitoring Systems to Detect Aircraft Exposure to Volcanic Events

2021-05-13
CURRENT
AIR6212
This document collates the ways and means that existing sensors can identify the platform’s exposure to volcanic ash. The capabilities include real-time detection and estimation, and post flight determinations of exposure and intensity. The document includes results of initiatives with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Transport Canada, various research organizations, Industry and other subject matter experts. The document illustrates the ways that an aircraft can use existing sensors to act as health monitoring tools so as to assess the operational and maintenance effects related to volcanic ash incidents and possibly help determine what remedial action to take after encountering a volcanic ash (VA) event.
Standard

Determination of Costs and Benefits from Implementing an Integrated Vehicle Health Management System

2021-02-11
CURRENT
ARP6275A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides insights on how to perform a cost versus benefit (C/B) analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated health management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform-centric system. This document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis and the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA, and it differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that an HM system could provide.
Standard

Utilizing Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Systems for Maintenance Credit

2021-01-12
WIP
ARP7122
The processes outlined in this document cover the entire aircraft for both commercial and military applications. In addition to on-board systems, it covers on-ground elements as well. The practical application of this standardized process is detailed in the form of a checklist. As in all HM-1 documents, the scope of this document covers sensing and acquisition systems, typically on board, data transmission systems and processes, methods and hardware for data analysis, and finally, maintenance actions. The on-board aspects relating to safety of flight, pilot notification, etc., are addressed by the other SAE Committees standards and documents. To help explain the process and the use of the checklist, some high-level use cases related to maintenance credit applications are included.
Standard

Prognostics and Health Management Guidelines for Electro-Mechanical Actuators

2020-11-12
CURRENT
AIR8012
Reducing the power consumption—and hence, the fuel burn—is a major target for the next generation of aircraft, and electrical actuation is perceived as a technological area able to provide power saving. Electrical actuation can in fact contribute to the reduction of the non-propulsive power because electro-mechanical actuators, when compared to the conventional hydraulic actuators, rely on a form of power subjected to lower distribution losses and in general can lead to a weight savings at the aircraft level if the required power remains under a break-over point. Moreover, electro-mechanical actuators (EMAs) present higher reliability and maintainability with a lower life-cycle cost.
Standard

A Guide to Extending Times Between Overhaul for Rotorcraft Power Train Transmissions Using Monitoring Data

2020-06-09
CURRENT
AIR6334
Time in Service (TIS), or flight hours, logged in maintenance records against an installed rotorcraft transmission is normally used as the “official” time on wing metric for the transmission’s component wear out inspection interval requirement and, in some instances, retirement change on life limited parts. This AIR addresses traditional methods of transmission TBO extensions and introduces rotorcraft transmission monitoring usage metrics that could be used to modify TIS inspections by tracking torque to determine both loads on life limited parts and component wear. This is a document of the SAE HM-1 Committee intended to be used as a technical information source and is not intended as a legal document or standard. This AIR does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation, past experience, concerns and potential benefits.
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring System, Rotational System Indexing Sensor Specification

2020-04-02
CURRENT
AS5392A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies requirements for the interface between a rotational system indexing sensor and its interface electronics. These sensors generate one or more electrical pulses for each revolution of the shaft being monitored. These pulses can be used to determine the actual shaft rotational speed and/or position for use in a Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). Indexing sensors are used in the following HUMS areas on the aircraft: (a) rotor track and balance, (b) engine vibration monitoring and diagnostics, (c) drive train vibration monitoring and diagnostics. The goal of this standardization effort is to be able to take any compliant indexing sensor and connect it to any compliant interface electronics. These SAE HUMS Interface Specifications include the minimal interface and performance requirements for interoperability with the Rotorcraft Industry Technology Association (RITA) compliant HUMS.
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring System, Blade Tracker Interface Specification

2020-04-02
CURRENT
AS5393A
Blade trackers measure: (a) rotor blade height and (b) lead-lag for use in a Rotor Track and Balance (RT&B) function in a Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). HUMS is a generic term for a system used to measure, monitor, process, and store information relating to the functioning and usage of an aircraft's on-board primary systems, including the engine(s).
Standard

Human Factor Considerations in the Implementation of IVHM

2020-03-20
CURRENT
AIR6915
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) offers information on how human factors should be considered when developing and implementing IVHM capabilities for both military and civil fixed wing aircraft. These considerations will cover the perception, analysis, and action taken by the flight crew and the maintenance personnel in response to outputs from the IVHM system. These outputs would be onboard realtime for the flight crew and post flight for maintenance. This document is not intended to be a guideline; it is intended to provide information that should be considered when designing and implementing future IVHM systems.
Standard

Guidelines for Writing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

2019-12-03
CURRENT
ARP6883
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance on developing requirements for systems that include Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability [REF1], [REF18]. IVHM is increasingly being implemented on military and commercial aircraft. Some examples include the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) [REF1] and the AH-64 Apache [REF3] in the military domain, and the B787 [REF4] and A350XWB [REF5] in the commercial domain. This document provides a systematic approach for developing requirements related to the IVHM capabilities of a vehicle system. This document is not intended to repeat general guidelines on good requirements writing [REF13], [REF20]. Instead, the focus is on the unique elements, which need to be considered for IVHM and the resulting specific guidelines that will help define better requirements and hence better systems. The multi-faceted nature of IVHM should include the process of requirements gathering.
Standard

IVHM Design Guidelines

2019-07-29
CURRENT
ARP6407
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) capability that will extend the vehicle’s inherent design to enable health management of the platform and its components. This guidance is technology-independent; the principles are generally applicable to the majority of potential IVHM design scenarios, including “clean sheet” system design, where IVHM is considered as a primary design consideration, and the retrofit design, where existing systems are modified and leveraged with the IVHM capability. In either case, this ARP provides guidance for designing the IVHM capability from the feasibility assessment to the conceptual design analysis and to the development design phases, with considerations given to trade studies, metrics, and life cycle impacts.
Standard

Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance Costs A Best Practices Guide

2019-05-07
CURRENT
JA6097_201905
SAE JA6097 (“Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance”) shows how to determine which maintenance to perform on a system when that system requires corrective maintenance to achieve the lowest long-term operating cost. While this document may focus on applications to Jet Engines and Aircraft, this methodology could be applied to nearly any type of system. However, it would be most effective for systems that are tightly integrated, where a failure in any part of the system causes the entire system to go off-line, and the process of accessing a failed component can require additional maintenance on other unrelated components.
Standard

Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) Recommended Practices

2019-04-03
WIP
JA1013
The scope of this document is to clearly lay out the path for an organization to implement a CBM approach to maintenance. The practices will include both CBM in design and in the support phase for fielded equipment.
Standard

Environment Spectra and Corrosivity Monitoring Using Electrochemical and Electrical Resistance Sensors

2019-02-11
WIP
AIR6970
This Aerospace Informational Report (AIR) provides guidance on using environmental, electrochemical, and electrical resistance measurements to monitor environment spectra and corrosivity of service environments, focusing on parameters of interest, existing measurement platforms, deployment requirements, and data processing techniques. The sensors and monitoring systems provide discrete time-based records of 1) environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and contaminants; 2) measures of alloy corrosion in the sensor; and 3) protective coating performance in the sensor. These systems provide measurements of environmental parameters, sensor material corrosion rate, and sensor coating condition for use in assessing the risk of atmospheric corrosion of the structure.
Standard

Applicable Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Regulations, Policy, and Guidance

2019-01-14
CURRENT
AIR6900
This AIR lists and describes a collection of regulations, policy, and guidance documents applicable to design approval applicants, aircraft operating certificate holders, and maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO) organizations. The aircraft industry should consider these rules when installing IVHM technology for use in aircraft maintenance. This is a starting basis and should not be considered as complete when certification of an IVHM system is expected. The AIR’s objectives are: 1 To set the foundation for aircraft certification applicants seeking to design IVHM solutions as part of the type certificate (TC), supplemental type certificate (STC), amended TC, or amended STC activities; and 2 To set the foundation for aircraft operating certificate holders to engage with regulators to get authorization for using IVHM applications as part of an aircraft maintenance program. NOTE: This AIR’s scope is limited to the United States (U.S.)
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring Metrics Monitoring the Monitor

2018-05-03
CURRENT
ARP5783
This recommended practice applies to vibration monitoring systems for rotorcraft and fixed-wing drive trains, airframes, propulsion systems, electric power generators, and flight control systems. It addresses all aspects of metrics, including what to measure, how to measure, and how to evaluate the results.
Standard

Software Interfaces for Ground-Based Monitoring Systems

2018-05-03
CURRENT
AS4831A
To establish a specification for software input and output interfaces for condition monitoring and performance programs used to monitor equipment from multiple manufacturers. The purpose of standardizing these interfaces is to improve operational flexibility and efficiency of monitoring systems as an aid to cost effectiveness (e.g., easier implementation).
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring System Data Interchange Specification

2018-05-03
CURRENT
AS5395
This document establishes the Rotorcraft Industry Technology Association (RITA) Health and Usage Monitoring System Data Interchange Specification. The RITA HUMS Data Interchange Specification will provide information exchange within a rotorcraft HUMS and between a rotorcraft HUMS and external entities.
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