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A Process for Utilizing Aerospace Propulsion Health Management Systems for Maintenance Credit

2018-12-06
CURRENT
ARP5987
The process detailed within this document is generic and can be applied to commercial and military applications. It applies to the entire end-to-end health management system throughout its lifecycle, covering on-board and on-ground elements. The practical application of this standardized process is detailed in the form of a checklist. The on-board element described here are the source of the data acquisition used for off-board analysis. The on-board aspects relating to safety of flight, pilot notification, etc., are addressed by the other SAE Committees standards and documents. This document does not prescribe hardware or software assurance levels, nor does it answer the question “how much mitigation and evidence are enough”. The criticality level and mitigation method will be determined between the ‘Applicant’ and the regulator.
Standard

Prognostics for Gas Turbine Engines

2018-09-11
WIP
AIR5871A
This document applies to prognostics of gas turbine engines and its related auxiliary and subsystems. Its purpose is to define the meaning of prognostics with regard to gas turbine engines and related subsystems, explain its potential and limitations, and to provide guidelines for potential approaches for use in existing condition monitoring environments. It also includes some examples.
Standard

Guide to Engine Lubrication System Monitoring

2018-04-10
CURRENT
AIR1828C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information and guidance for the selection and use of technologies and methods for lubrication system monitoring of gas turbine aircraft engines. This AIR describes technologies and methods covering oil system performance monitoring, oil debris monitoring, and oil condition monitoring. Both on-aircraft and off-aircraft applications are presented. A higher-level view of lubrication system monitoring as part of an overall engine monitoring system (EMS), is discussed in ARP1587. The scope of this document is limited to those lubrication system monitoring, inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for health monitoring and routine maintenance. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard.
Standard

A Guide to APU Health Management

2018-04-09
CURRENT
AIR5317A
AIR5317 establishes the foundation for developing a successful APU health management capability for any commercial or military operator, flying fixed wing aircraft or rotorcraft. This AIR provides guidance for demonstrating business value through improved dispatch reliability, fewer service interruptions, and lower maintenance costs and for satisfying Extended Operations (ETOPS) availability and compliance requirements.
Standard

Lessons Learned from Developing, Implementing, and Operating a Health Management System for Propulsion and Drive Train Systems

2018-04-05
WIP
AIR1871D
SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR1871 provides valuable insight into lessons learned in the development, implementation, and operation of various health monitoring systems for propulsion engines and drive train systems. This document provides an overview of the lessons learned for ground-based systems, oil debris monitoring systems, lubrication systems, and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for military and commercial programs. For each case study, this document presents a brief technical description, the design requirements, accomplishments, lessons learned, and future recommendations. The lessons learned presented in this document represent a fragment of the knowledge gained through experience when developing and implementing a propulsion health management system. Previous versions of this document contain additional lessons learned during the 1980’s and 1990’s that may be of additional value to the reader.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Power Train Monitoring

2017-07-19
CURRENT
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which aircraft propulsion energy in a turbine or reciprocating engine is converted via a gear train to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers aircraft engine driven transmission and gearbox components, their interfaces, drivetrain shafting, drive shaft hanger bearings, and associated rotating accessories, propellers, and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. For guidance on monitoring additional engine components not addressed, herein (e.g., main shaft bearings and compressor/turbine rotors), refer to ARP1839.
Standard

Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics for Engine Health Management Systems

2017-01-24
WIP
AIR7999
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents metrics for assessing the performance of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms applied to Engine Health Management (EHM) functions. This document consolidates and expands upon the metric information previously contained in AIR4985 and AIR5909. The emphasis is entirely on metrics and as such is intended to provide an extension and complement to such documents as ARP4176, which provides insight into how to create a cost benefit analysis to determine the justification for implementing an EHM system.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2017-01-04
CURRENT
AIR1839D
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
Standard

Guide to Limited Engine Monitoring Systems for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

2016-11-29
CURRENT
AIR1873A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes a Limited Engine Monitoring System that can be used by the flight crew or the maintenance staff, or both, to monitor the health of gas turbine engines in aircraft. This AIR considers monitoring of gas path performance and mechanical parameters, and systems such as low cycle fatigue counters and engine history recorders. It also considers typical measurement system accuracies and their impact. This AIR is intended as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. AIR 1873 supplements ARP 1587, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Monitoring System Guide.
Standard

Guidelines for Integrating Typical Engine Health Management Functions Within Aircraft Systems

2016-11-12
CURRENT
AIR4061C
SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 4061 provides best practice guidelines for the integration of Engine Health Management (EHM) system functions within aircraft systems to include both its main engine(s) and any Auxiliary Power Unit(s) (APU). This document provides an overview of some of the functions EHM typically integrates, offers some system variations encountered with different aircraft, and suggests general considerations involved with integration. It presents a sample EHM parameter coverage matrix to show the types of parameters with which a typical EHM system might interface, offers insight into signal and data processing and retrieval, and offers a view of typical EHM parameter requirements by function. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
Standard

A Guide to the Development of a Ground Station for Engine Condition Monitoring

2016-11-12
CURRENT
AIR4175B
An effective GSS is vital to the successful implementation of an EMS and is a fundamental part of the total monitoring system design, including asset management. Unlike the on-board part of the EMS which principally uses real time data to indicate when engine maintenance is required, a GSS can offer much greater processing power to comprehensively analyze and manipulate EMS data for both maintenance and logistics purposes. This document reviews the main EMS functions and discusses the operating requirements used to determine the basis design of a GSS, including the interfaces with other maintenance or logistic systems. A brief discussion is also included on some of the more recent advances in GSS technology that have been specifically developed to provide more effective diagnostic capabilities for gas turbine engines.
Standard

Engine Monitoring System Reliability and Validity

2016-11-12
CURRENT
AIR5120A
For Engine Monitoring Systems to meet their potential for improved safety and reduced operation and support costs, significant attention must be focused on their reliability and validity throughout the life cycle. This AIR will provide program managers, designers, developers and customers a concise reference of the activities, approaches and considerations for the development and verification of a highly reliable engine monitoring system. When applying the guidelines of this AIR it should be noted that engine monitoring systems physically or functionally integrated with the engine control system and/or performing functions that affect engine safety or are used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions shall be subject to the Type Investigation of the product in which they'll be incorporated and have to show compliance with the applicable airworthiness requirements as defined by the responsible Aviation Authority.
Standard

Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Health Management System Development and Integration Guide

2016-03-05
CURRENT
ARP5120
ARP5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional design, development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management (EHM) systems for aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health management system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions for EHM. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
Standard

Prognostic Metrics for Engine Health Management Systems

2016-02-26
CURRENT
AIR5909
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents metrics for assessing the performance of prognostic algorithms applied for Engine Health Management (EHM) functions. The emphasis is entirely on prognostics and as such is intended to provide an extension and complement to such documents as AIR5871, which offers information and guidance on general prognostic approaches relevant to gas turbines, and AIR4985 which offers general metrics for evaluating diagnostic systems and their impact on engine health management activities.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2015-12-20
CURRENT
ARP1839
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications.
Standard

Cost Versus Benefits of Engine Monitoring Systems

2015-03-29
CURRENT
AIR4176A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze "actual aircraft cost/benefits results". These are presented as follows: a. First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b. Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c. Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations.
Standard

Determination of Costs and Benefits from Implementing an Engine Health Management System

2013-02-05
CURRENT
ARP4176
This ARP provides an insight into how to approach a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a propulsion Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system on an air vehicle. It describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with PHM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a PHM system could provide.
Standard

Airborne Engine Vibration Monitoring (EVM) System, Guidelines for Performance Standard For

2012-05-31
CURRENT
AS8054A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides guidelines for the functional, performance, qualification and acceptance testing, and documentation requirements for the components of an airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) system which is intended for use as a turbojet engine rotor unbalance indicating system, per FAR 25.1305 (D)(3) on transport category airplanes.
Standard

The Preparation and Use of Chromel-Alumel Thermocouples for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

2011-11-05
WIP
AIR46C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews the precautions which must be taken and the corrections which must be evaluated and applied if the experimental error in measuring the temperature of a hot gas stream with a thermocouple is to be kept to a practicable minimum. Discussions will focus on Type K thermocouples. These are defined in NBS Monograph 125 as nickel-chromium alloy versus nickel-aluminum alloy thermocouples.
Standard

Guide to Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

2011-09-29
CURRENT
AIR1872B
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: safety, life-limiting criteria, life usage algorithm development, data acquisition and management, parts life tracking, design feedback, and cost effectiveness. It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technolog to the following areas: parts classification and control requirements, failure causes of life-limited parts, engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques, method validation, parts life usage data management, lessons learned, and life usage tracking benefits. SAE ARP1587 provides general guidance on the design consideration and objectives of monitoring systems for aircraft gas turbine engines.
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