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Design and Operating Requirements of the Onboard Aircraft Refueling System and Associated Ground Refueling Equipment Interface

2023-10-02
CURRENT
AS5751
This SAE Aerospace Specification (AS) is applicable to all aircraft. This AS defines the minimum design and operating requirements for the aircraft refueling interface. These requirements establish the minimum criteria for the aircraft design that provides practical standardized refueling system requirements, provides minimum standardized criteria for the operation and performance of any aircraft refueling equipment, and establishes an integrated minimum performance for aircraft refueling operations. This standardization provides the minimum design criteria to assure full compatibility between the aircraft refueling system connection point(s), aircraft operating characteristics, and the design and operation of ground based aircraft refueling equipment in all steady state and dynamic refueling and defueling conditions. The criteria that shall be used to test the operation and performance of the aircraft refueling system and equipment are also specified.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel System Design Guidelines

2023-09-27
WIP
AIR7975A
This document describes the major design drivers and considerations when designing a fuel system for a large commercial aircraft. It discusses the design at a system/aircraft level, and is not intended as a design manual for individual system components, though it does refer out to other SAE specifications where more detail on specific components and sub systems is given. It does include examples of a number of calculations associated with sizing of fuel systems, based on those given in NAV-AIR-06-5-504, as well as an appendix summarizing basic fluid mechanical equations which are key for fuel system design. It is acknowledged that most of these calculations would today be performed by modelling tools, rather than by hand, but it is considered important for the designer to understand the principles. It is intended that later issues of this document will include appendices which give specific considerations for military aircraft, smaller commercial aircraft, and rotorcraft.
Standard

Synthetic Jet Fuels from Non-Petroleum Feed Stocks

2023-02-20
CURRENT
AIR6148
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides general information on the developing subject of synthetic jet fuels derived from non-petroleum feed stocks. It addresses synthetic jet fuel properties and other topics associated with their use and is intended as a guide to assist aviation fuel system designers in considering important information on fuel properties when designing aircraft fuel systems and components. The AIR is limited to “drop-in” fuels that meet the requirements of the respective fuel specifications and are compatible with typical aircraft and ground refueling systems. While some key properties are included in this AIR for discussion, the reader should utilize documents such as MIL-HDBK-510 or the ASTM International research reports for a more-detailed review of fuel properties. AIR7484 also gives more details on fuel properties, specifically as they relate to airframe fuel system design.
Standard

Guidance for the Design and Installation of Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems (FQIS)

2022-10-07
CURRENT
AIR5691B
This document is applicable to commercial and military aircraft fuel quantity indication systems. It is intended to give guidance for system design and installation. It describes key areas to be considered in the design of a modern fuel system and builds upon experiences gained in the industry in the last 10 years.
Standard

Electrical Bonding of Aircraft Fuel Systems

2022-10-04
CURRENT
AIR5128A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of aircraft fuel systems and the questions concerning the requirements for electrical bonding of the various components of the system as related to Static Electric Charges, Fault Current, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Lightning Strikes (Direct and Indirect Effects). This AIR contains engineering guidelines for the design, installation, testing (measurement) and inspection of electrical bonds.
Standard

Definition of Pressure Surge Test and Measurement Methods for Receiver Aircraft

2022-01-12
WIP
ARP1665B
The test procedure applies to the refueling manifold system connectingn the receiver aircraft fuel tanks to the refueling source fuel pump(s) for both ground and aerial refueling. The test procedure is intended to verify that the limit value for surge pressure specified for the receiver fuel system is not exceeded when refueling from a refueling source which meets the requirements of AS1284 (reference 2). This recommended practice is not directly applicable to surge pressure developed during operation of an aircraft fuel system, such as initiating or stopping engine fuel feed or fuel transfer within an aircraft, or the pressure surge produced when the fuel pumps are first started to fill an empty fuel manifold.
Standard

Aircraft Flame Arrestor Installation Guidelines and Test Methods

2021-08-26
CURRENT
ARP5776
The scope of this document is to provide pertinent information on demonstrating the performance of Flame Arrestors, also known as Fuel Vent Protectors (FVPs), in preventing the propagation of a deflagration when the arrestors are subjected to aerospace-representative flames produced by the venting of flammable gas through the arrestor. Test procedures for two separate combustion-loading profiles are presented herein: The flame hold test condition, and the flame propagation test condition. For the flame hold test condition, the applicability of two separate critical flows is discussed in which one flow results in the greatest flame arrestor temperature and a second flow results in the greatest temperature of the surrounding structure.
Standard

Fuel Level Control Valves and Systems

2021-04-23
CURRENT
AIR1660C
A fuel level control valve/system controls the quantity of fuel in a tank being filled or emptied on the aircraft. This document provides a general familiarization with these mechanisms (e.g., forms they take, functions, system design considerations). This document provides the aircraft fuel system designer with information about these mechanisms/devices, so that he can prescribe the types of level control valves/systems which are best suited for his particular fuel system configuration. The scope has been expanded as different aircraft manufacturers may use different type of fuel system architectures. Their refueling and defueling systems may take different configurations, may require different types of fuel control valves and may require different types of interface with the onboard Fuel Measurement System. They must also limit pressure surges and be compatible with ground refueling equipment which have varying surge potentials and create surges.
Standard

Capacitive Fuel Gauging System Accuracies

2021-04-23
CURRENT
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
Standard

Fuel Level Point Sensing

2020-11-30
CURRENT
AIR6325
This report is intended to identify the various existing technologies used for a fuel level sensing system. In addition to sensing technologies, it describes the basic architecture of fuel level sensing systems and their association with fuel gauging system to increase integrity of fuel measurement and management. As the fuel level sensing system is generally based on electrical components within fuel tanks, a specific focus is made on fuel tank explosion safety protection. An overview of the capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
Standard

Acceptance Test Procedures and Standards to Ensure Clean Fuel System Components

2020-10-01
CURRENT
ARP1953B
To describe general guidelines for achieving selected levels of cleanliness in gas turbine engine fuel system components and to describe laboratory methods for measuring and reporting the contamination level of the wetted portion of fuel system components. As in SAE J1227 (covering hydraulic components) this practice includes guidelines for levels of acceptance but does not attempt to set those levels.
Standard

Considerations on Ice Formation in Aircraft and Engine Fuel Systems

2020-09-18
CURRENT
AIR790D
Ice formation in aircraft fuel systems results from the presence of dissolved and undissolved water in the fuel. Dissolved water or water in solution with hydrocarbon fuels constitutes a relatively small part of the total water potential in a particular system with the quantity dissolved being primarily dependent on the fuel temperature and the water solubility characteristics of the fuel. One condition of undissolved water is entrained water, such as water particles suspended in the fuel as a result of mechanical agitation of free water or conversion of dissolved water through temperature reduction. This can be considered as analogous to an emulsion state. Another condition of undissolved water is free water which may be introduced as a result of refueling or the settling of entrained water which collects at the bottom of a fuel tank in easily detectable quantities separated by a continuous interface from the fuel above.
Standard

Method-Pressure Drop Tests for Fuel System Components

2020-05-18
CURRENT
ARP868D
This document describes recommended methods, associated equipment, and test setups to assist in understanding and conducting pressure drop tests on fuel system components. Background information and suggestions are provided to improve accuracy and repeatability of test results. Although written specifically for fuel system components, the methods, equipment, and suggestions presented herein apply equally to pressure drop tests conducted on any equipment utilizing incompressible fluids.
Standard

Self-Sealing Breakaway Valves for Crash-Resistant Aircraft Fuel Systems

2020-03-19
CURRENT
AIR1616B
MIL-STD-1290, 14 CFR 27.952, and 14 CFR 29.952 provide crash resistant fuel system design and test criteria that significantly minimize fuel leaks and occurrence of post-crash fire in survivable impacts. This document does not change and does not authorize changes in or deviations from MIL-Standard or regulatory requirements. This document provides guidance for the design, performance, and test criteria for self-sealing breakaway valves.
Standard

Thesaurus for Fuel System Components

2020-02-24
CURRENT
AIR1615B
This document provides a summary of names commonly used throughout the industry for aircraft fuel system components. It is a thesaurus intended to aid those not familiar with the lexicon of the industry.
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