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Fuel System Design Considerations for Composite Based Fuel Components

2018-11-19
WIP
AIR7493
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering design guidelines and reference data useful to ensure composite materials used in fuel system components are compatible with an aircraft fuel system. This AIR is not a complete design manual, but offers insight into key aspects of composition design that must be adequately researched and verified before being used in a fuel system.
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Optical equipment safety in fuel tanks

2018-11-15
WIP
ARP7977
This project aims to develop a framework of requirements which support safe installation and operation of optical devices within an aircraft fuel tank, specifically: 1: To determine optical power and energy limits which ensure safe operation of optical installations within an aircraft fuel tank over aircraft life and under all phases of flight, taking the limits provided in IEC 60079-28:20015 as a starting point. 2: To demonstrate optical and electrical power and energy equivalences, where possible. 3: To determine requirements for optical installations, including bonding and electrostatic discharge for non-conductive components such as optical fibres. 4: To provide guidelines for analysis of the hazards presented by the typical internal components of optical devices, such as failure modes of photo diodes and cells.
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Design and Operating Requirements of the Onboard Aircraft Refueling System and Associated Ground Refueling Equipment Interface

2018-03-18
CURRENT
AS5751
This SAE Aerospace Specification (AS) is applicable to all aircraft. This AS defines the minimum design and operating requirements for the aircraft refueling interface. These requirements establish the minimum criteria for the aircraft design that provides practical standardized refueling system requirements, provides minimum standardized criteria for the operation and performance of any aircraft refueling equipment, and establishes an integrated minimum performance for aircraft refueling operations. This standardization provides the minimum design criteria to assure full compatibility between the aircraft refueling system connection point(s), aircraft operating characteristics, and the design and operation of ground based aircraft refueling equipment in all steady state and dynamic refueling and defueling conditions. The criteria that shall be used to test the operation and performance of the aircraft refueling system and equipment are also specified.
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Guidance on the Impact of Fuel Properties on Fuel System Design and Operation

2018-02-24
CURRENT
AIR7484
This document describes a number of jet fuel properties and where applicable gives the specification limits for Jet A and Jet A-1, though the properties are generally applicable to all turbine fuels. Later versions of this document will give more details on specification limits for other similar fuels, such as TS-1, where they differ from Jet A and Jet-A1. It gives details about the possible impact on airframe fuel system design.
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Minimization of Electrostatic Hazards in Aircraft Fuel Systems

2017-11-15
WIP
AIR1662B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides background information, technical data and related technical references for minimization of electrostatic hazards in aircraft fuel systems. Techniques used to minimize the electrostatic hazard include: a. Reducing fueling rate into tank bays including use of multiple refueling inlet nozzles. b. Reducing refuel plumbingn flow velocities. c. Introducing fuel into the tank at a low velocity near the bottom and directing it to impinge upon a grounded conducting surface. d. Avoiding electrically isolated conductors in the fuel tank. e. Using conductivity additives in the fuel.
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Electrical Bonding of Aircraft Fuel Systems

2017-10-20
WIP
AIR5128B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of aircraft fuel systems and the questions concerning the requirements for electrical bonding of the various components of the system as related to Static Electric Charges, Fault Current, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Lightning Strikes (Direct and Indirect Effects). This AIR contains engineering guidelines for the design, installation, testing (measurement) and inspection of electrical bonds.
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Guidance for the Design and Installation of Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems

2017-05-18
CURRENT
AIR5691A
This document is applicable to commercial and military aircraft fuel quantity indication systems. It is intended to give guidance for system design and installation. It describes key areas to be considered in the design of a modern fuel system, and builds upon experiences gained in the industry in the last 10 years.
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Capacitive Fuel Gauging System Accuracies

2016-08-12
CURRENT
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
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Fuel Level Control Valves and Systems

2016-05-17
CURRENT
AIR1660C
A fuel level control valve/system controls the quantity of fuel in a tank being filled or emptied on the aircraft. This document provides a general familiarization with these mechanisms (e.g., forms they take, functions, system design considerations). This document provides the aircraft fuel system designer with information about these mechanisms/devices, so that he can prescribe the types of level control valves/systems which are best suited for his particular fuel system configuration. The scope has been expanded as different aircraft manufacturers may use different type of fuel system architectures. Their refueling and defueling systems may take different configurations, may require different types of fuel control valves and may require different types of interface with the onboard Fuel Measurement System. They must also limit pressure surges and be compatible with ground refueling equipment which have varying surge potentials and create surges.
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Aircraft Fuel System and Component Icing Test

2016-05-17
WIP
ARP1401C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers a brief discussion of the icing problem in aircraft fuel systems and different means that have been used to test for icing. Fuel preparation procedures and icing tests for aircraft fuel systems and components are proposed herein as a recommended practice to be used in the aircraft industry for fixed wing aircraft and their operational environment only. In the context of this ARP, the engine (and APU) is not considered to be a component of the aircraft fuel system, for the engine fuel system is subjected to icing tests by the engine/APU manufacturer for commercial and specific military applications. This ARP is written mostly to address fuel system level testing. It also provides a means to address the requirements of 14 CFR 23.951(c) and 25.951(c). Some of the methods described in this document can be applied to engine and APU level testing or components of those application domains.
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Fuel Thermal Management Systems

2016-04-21
WIP
AIR6380
Overview of thermal management system Key requirements and design considerations for thermal management system Lessons learned
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Glossary of Terms - Aircraft Ground Refueling

2015-09-23
WIP
AIR4783A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents a glossary of terms commonly utilized in the ground delivery of fuel to an aircraft and some terms relating to the aircraft being refueled. The purpose of this document is to provide background material for educational purposes to persons designing, building, and using aircraft ground refueling delivery systems.
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Engine Fuel System and Component Icing Test

2015-06-25
WIP
ARP6340
This ARP provides recommended practice on the considerations and methodology to demonstrate acceptable performance of the Engine components / fuel system, and APU, whilst operating throughout the flight cycle / engine duty for continuous operation with iced fuel and short duration operation with a snowshower resulting from release of accreted ice from fuel washed surfaces, where no anti-icing additives are present (e.g. Fuel System Icing Inhibitor FSII or alternative). Two scenarios must be considered when demonstrating the capability of Engine components / fuel system, and APU to operate with fuel borne ice to satisfy certification regulations applications in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.
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Fuel System Definitions and Glossary of Terms

2015-05-20
WIP
AIR6510
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) comprises the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations that are used in Aircraft Fuel Systems.
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FUEL LEVEL POINT SENSING

2015-04-21
WIP
AIR6325
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide comprehensive reference and background information pertaining to aircraft point level sensing
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