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Ice Protection for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2017-09-22
WIP
AIR6962
A review of icing materials that would be educational to a designer of a UAV ice protection system is provided. Additionally, the differences between unmanned and manned ice protection systems are explored along with a discussion on how these differences can be addressed.
Standard

SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2016-08-29
CURRENT
AIR1168/4B
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

Particle Sizing Instrumentation for Icing Cloud Characterization

2016-04-19
WIP
AIR4906A
This information report provides a review of liquid drop and ice crystal particle sizing instruments used for facility based icing research and in-flight testing commonly used for aircraft certification icing envelopes. This report will provide an overview of the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them for cloud characterization. Methods in use for data reduction (including combining output from multiple probes) as well as potential error sources are provided for information. Measurement methods from prior revisions of this AIR that are no longer commonly used (e.g. oil slides and rotating cylinders) will be retained for reference. This document does not include other icing cloud measurements such as liquid or total water contents, or measurement of other types of phenomena such as snow, sleet or hail.
Standard

Calibration and Acceptance of Icing Wind Tunnels

2015-10-23
WIP
ARP5905A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document provides recommended practices for the calibration and acceptance of icing wind tunnels to be used in testing of aircraft components and systems and for the development of simulated ice shapes. This document is not applicable to air-breathing propulsion test facilities configured for the purposes of engine icing tests. Use of facilities as part of an aircraft's ice protection Certification Plan should be reviewed and accepted by the applicable regulatory agency prior to testing. Following acceptance of a test plan, data generated in these facilities may be submitted to regulatory agencies for use in the certification of aircraft ice protection systems and components. Certain types of tests may be appropriate in facilities with capabilities that are not as rigorously characterized as by the practices defined herein, and the acceptability of these tests should be coordinated with the applicable regulatory agency.
Standard

Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

2015-09-25
CURRENT
AIR5320A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

Characterizations of Aircraft Icing Conditions

2015-08-24
CURRENT
AIR5396A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides various graphical displays of atmospheric variables related to aircraft icing conditions in natural clouds. It is intended as a review of recent developments on the subject, and for stimulating thought on novel ways to arrange and use the available data. Included in this Report is FAR 25 (JAR 25) Appendix C, the established Aircraft Icing Atmospheric Characterization used for engineering design, development, testing and certification of civilian aircraft to fly in aircraft icing conditions.
Standard

Ice and Rain Minimum Qualification Standards for Pitot and Pitot-static Probes

2015-08-07
CURRENT
AS5562
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b. Class 2a probe applications typically include aircraft that operate within the mid to lower end of the Class 2 altitude range and that only use probe output to display basic airspeed and/or altitude.
Standard

SLD capabilities of icing wind tunnels

2015-07-09
WIP
AIR6341
The purpose of this AIR is to compile in one definitive source, commonly accepted calibration, acceptance criteria and procedures for simulation of Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions within icing wind tunnels. Facilities that meet the criteria for either some or all of the recognized conditions will have known SLD icing simulation capability.
Standard

SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2014-01-14
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/4A
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

Guidance on Selecting a Ground-based Icing Simulation Facility

2013-04-24
WIP
AIR6247
This document is intended to serve two purposes: (1) provide a list of topics for potential customers to ask of the facility to aid their selection decision-making, and (2) provide a list of icing wind tunnel and engine test stand facilities that simulate flight through icing or ice crystal clouds.
Standard

Icing Technology Bibliography

2013-03-15
CURRENT
AIR4015D
This Icing Technology Bibliography is a compendium of references from the open literature that were published prior to the original 1987 issuance of the AIR, including both national and foreign sources. Due to the generality of the subject, and the difficulty of fully investigating every available source, the Bibliography in this document is not intended to be complete.
Standard

Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2012-10-03
CURRENT
AIR5666
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
Standard

Ice Shape Test Matrix Development for Unprotected Surfaces

2010-10-19
WIP
ARP6455
This document is intended to provide guidance for development of a test matrix for generation of ice shapes on unprotected surfaces. It introduces the reader to scaling of flight conditions to capabilities of typical icing tunnels and provides an example of the process.
Standard

Icing Tunnel Tests for Thermal Ice Protection Systems

2010-05-11
WIP
AIR6440
This document is intended to provide guidance for conducting icing tunnel tests for assessment and design of thermal anti-ice systems for wing, stabilizers and engine inlets (considering both hot air and electrical power as a heat source).
Standard

Aircraft Inflight Icing Terminology

2009-11-24
CURRENT
AIR5504A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides definitions for terms commonly used in aircraft inflight icing system design and analysis, research, and operations. Some general thermodynamic terms are included that are frequently used in icing analysis, but this document is not meant to be an inclusive list of such terms. The purpose of this document is to provide an assemblage of definitions for terms commonly used in aircraft icing. Over time, the field of aircraft icing has evolved a set of terms that are sometimes used in different ways and have different meanings. This document is a compendium of icing terms and their associated definitions. The SAE does not endorse or recommend any particular definition given in this report.
Standard

Aircraft Inflight Icing Terminology

2008-03-03
CURRENT
ARP5624
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommended definitions for terms commonly used in aircraft inflight icing system design and analysis, research, and operations. Some general thermodynamic terms are included that are frequently used in icing analysis, but this document is not meant to be an inclusive list of such terms.
Standard

Aircraft Inflight Ice Detectors and Icing Rate Measuring Instruments

2007-07-09
CURRENT
AIR4367A
This document provides information regarding ice detector technology, design and operating requirements. The SAE document AS5498 provides detailed information regarding the requirements, specifications, qualification, and certification of icing detection systems. This document is not meant to replace AS5498 but to enhance it by considering unique aspects of sensing technology and in particular those that may not be certificated at the time of this revision. To that end an effort has been made not to duplicate information contained in AS5498. Icing rate information is included where applicable. The primary application is associated with ice forming on the leading edges of airfoils and inlets while the aircraft is in flight. Information related to detection of ice over cold fuel tanks and icing at low velocity operation is included. The material is primarily applicable to fixed-wing aircraft. Unique requirements for engine inlets and rotorcraft are also provided.
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