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Environmental Control Systems (ECS) for UA (Unmanned Aircraft)

2022-06-24
WIP
AIR7063
This document provides guidance for establishing ECS for UA by primarily referencing existing AC-9 documents that apply with some indication how they need to be adapted. The document primarily addresses cooling requirements for UA equipment. Limited information is provided for ECS requirements for future UA that may carry passengers. The document does not intend to provide detail design guidance for all types of UA. This document only provides guidance related to environmental control of onboard equipment, cargo and possible animals and passengers. It does not pertain to the related ground stations that may be controlling the UA.
Standard

High Temperature Pneumatic Duct Systems for Aircraft

2022-03-21
WIP
ARP699F
This Recommended Practice is intended to outline the design, installation, testing, and field maintenance criteria for a high temperature metal pneumatic duct system, for use as a guide in the aircraft industry. These recommendations are to be considered as currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time, as a result of the rapid development of the industry.
Standard

Testing of Airplane Installed Environmental Control Systems (ECS)

2021-12-27
CURRENT
ARP217D
This document deals with ground and flight test of airplane installed Environmental Control Systems (ECS), Figure 1. The ECS provide an environment, controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals, and equipment. These limits include the following: pressure, temperature, humidity, ventilation air velocity, ventilation rate, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and environment composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.). The ECS are composed of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply, distribute, recycle and exhaust air to maintain the desired environment.
Standard

Compartment Decompression Analysis

2021-12-17
CURRENT
AIR5661A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
Standard

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

2021-12-15
CURRENT
AIR1957A
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
Standard

Electrical and Electronic Equipment Cooling in Commercial Transports

2021-08-10
CURRENT
AIR64C
This document considers the cooling of equipment installed in equipment centers, which usually consist of rack-mounted equipment and panel mounted equipment in the flight deck. Instances where these two locations result in different requirements are identified. This document generally refers to the cooled equipment as E/E equipment, denoting that both electrical and electronic equipment is considered, or as an E/E equipment line-replaceable-unit (LRU). The majority of cooled equipment takes the form of LRUs. The primary focus of this document is E/E equipment which uses forced air cooling to keep the equipment within acceptable environmental limits. These limits ensure the equipment operates reliably and within acceptable tolerances. Cooling may be supplied internally or externally to the E/E equipment case. Some E/E equipment is cooled solely by natural convection, conduction, and radiation to the surrounding environment.
Standard

Airborne Chemicals in Aircraft Cabins

2021-06-22
CURRENT
AIR4766/2A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: Origins of chemical airborne contaminants during routine operating and failure conditions. Exposure control measures, including design, maintenance, and worker training/education. This AIR does not deal with airflow requirements.
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2021-01-14
CURRENT
AIR1609B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

Fault Isolation in Environmental Control Systems of Commercial Transports

2021-01-12
CURRENT
AIR1266B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. The specific focus is on fault isolation of environmental control systems (ECS) in commercial transports. Presented are general fault isolation purposes, design principles, and demonstration of compliance criteria. These are followed by three design examples to aid in understanding the design principles. Future trends in built-in-test-equipment (BITE) design are discussed, some of which represent concepts already being implemented on new equipment.
Standard

Aircraft Thermal Management System Engineering

2020-10-26
CURRENT
AIR5744
The intent of this report is to encourage that the thermal management system architecture be designed from a global platform perspective. Separate procurements for air vehicle, propulsion system, and avionics have contributed to the development of aircraft that are sub-optimized from a thermal management viewpoint. In order to maximize the capabilities of the aircraft for mission performance and desired growth capability, overall system efficiency and effectiveness should be considered. This document provides general information about aircraft Thermal Management System Engineering (TMSE). The document also discusses approaches to processes and methodologies for validation and verification of thermal management system engineering. Thermal integration between the air vehicle, propulsion system, and avionics can be particularly important from a thermal management standpoint.
Standard

Environmental Control System Contamination

2020-05-29
CURRENT
AIR1539C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) includes a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc. are also covered in this AIR. This publication is concerned with contamination sources which interface with ECS and fuel tank inerting systems, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.
Standard

Environmental Systems Schematic Symbols

2020-05-20
CURRENT
ARP780C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides symbols to schematically represent aerospace vehicle environmental system components on functional flow schematic drawings and graphical computerized output. The symbols are for use on simplified diagrams that provide basic information about an environmental system. Symbols are provided to represent basic types of components used in environmental systems. Simple variations of basic symbol types are provided. Words on the schematic diagram, special symbol codes, or symbols that combine basic symbol types (Section 5) can be used to augment the basic symbols when appropriate. Special or combined symbols not contained in this document should be defined on the schematic diagram. An example of a complete schematic is given in Section 6. A bibliography of other documents on environmental system symbols is found in Appendix A.
Standard

Air Conditioning of Aircraft Cargo

2020-05-12
CURRENT
AIR806B
The report presents air conditioning data for aircraft cargo which is affected by temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and atmospheric pressure. The major emphasis is on conditioning of perishable products and warm-blooded animals. The report also covers topics peculiar to cargo aircraft or which are related to the handling of cargo.
Standard

The Control of Excess Humidity in Avionics Cooling

2020-05-12
CURRENT
ARP987B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.
Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

2020-05-12
CURRENT
ARP1796B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system.
Standard

Guide for Qualification Testing of Aircraft Air Valves

2020-05-12
CURRENT
ARP986D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines recommended analysis and test procedures for qualification of pneumatically, electrically, manually, and hydraulically actuated air valves. They may be further defined as valves that function in response to externally applied forces or in response to variations in upstream and/or downstream duct air conditions in order to maintain a calibrated duct air condition (e.g., air flow, air pressure, air temperature, air pressure ratio, or air shutoff). Qualification testing performed on the airplane to verify compatibility of the valve function and stability as part of a complete system is outside the scope of this document. Refer to ARP1270 for design and certification requirements for cabin pressurization control system components. As this document is only a guide, it does not supersede or relieve any requirements contained in detailed Customer specifications.
Standard

Environmental Control Systems for Rotorcraft

2020-05-12
CURRENT
ARP292D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, environmental conditions, and design considerations for rotorcraft environmental control systems (ECS). The rotorcraft ECS comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators which supply and distribute dehumidified conditioned air for ventilation, cooling and heating of the occupied compartments, and cooling of the avionics. The principal features of the system are: a A controlled fresh air supply b A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) c A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply d A means for heating e A temperature control system f A conditioned air distribution system The ARP is applicable to both civil and military rotorcraft where an ECS is specified; however, certain requirements peculiar to military applications—such as nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) protection—are not covered.
Standard

Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2019-10-01
CURRENT
AS8040C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft deicing
Standard

Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

2019-09-25
CURRENT
ARP85G
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing, and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating. c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers). d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply. e A ventilation subsystem. f A temperature control subsystem. g A pressure control subsystem. Other system components for treating cabin air, such as filtration and humidification, are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning.
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