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Achieving Cleanliness Standards for Aircraft Hydraulic Systems During Manufacture

2022-11-14
CURRENT
ARP5891A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides processes for achieving the required cleanliness standards during the fabrication, assembly, and functional test of aircraft hydraulic systems. It covers exclusion and removal of solid and liquid contaminants from tubing during manufacture and final assembly, flushing of the installed system, and final checks to ensure cleanliness requirements are met.
Standard

Handbook of Hydraulic Metric Calculations

2021-05-18
CURRENT
AIR1657C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides details of how to perform hydraulic system calculations using equations that incorporate the metric International System of Units (SI).
Standard

Airborne Hydraulic and Control System Survivability for Military Aircraft

2018-08-23
CURRENT
AIR1083C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides the hydraulic and flight-control system designer with the various design options and techniques that are currently available to enhance the survivability of military aircraft. The AIR addresses the following major topics: a Design concepts and architecture (see 3.2, 3.5, and 3.6) b Design implementation (see 3.3, 3.6, and 3.7) c Means to control external leakage (see 3.4) d Component design (see 3.8)
Standard

Aerospace Military Aircraft Hydraulic System Characteristics

2018-04-24
WIP
AIR1899B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been compiled to provide information on hydraulic systems fitted to the following categories of military vehicles: attack airplanes, fighter airplanes; bombers; anti-sub, fixed wing airplanes; transport airplanes; helicopters; and boats.

The purpose of this document is to provide hydraulic system information to military vehicle system and component designers in order to assist them in future aircraft fluid power system designs.

Standard

Achieving Cleanliness Standards for Aircraft Hydraulic Systems During Manufacture

2014-05-12
HISTORICAL
ARP5891
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes the processes to achieve and maintain the required cleanliness levels in flight vehicle hydraulic systems during fabrication, assembly and pre-flight functional tests. This recommended practice covers exclusion and removal primarily of solid contaminants that occur or are created during these successive steps. The flushing procedure for installed tubing is detailed. This ARP does not address contamination levels of hydraulic fluids as purchased, operation and maintenance of ground carts, details of component cleanliness or of contamination measurement. This ARP applies to military aircraft and helicopters designed to AS5440, commercial aircraft hydraulic systems designed to ARP4752 and commercial helicopter hydraulic systems designed to ARP4925.
Standard

Long-Term Storage Reliability of High Pressure Gas Containers for Pneumatic Actuation Systems

2013-10-04
CURRENT
AIR4725A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides design data reliability information relative to the long-term storage of gas containers or pressure vessels charged with nitrogen or helium at pressures ranging from 6000 to 12 000 psi. The gas containers are cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal in shape. Internal volumes range up to 1385 in3. Applications for this type cold gas actuation system include tactical missiles, guided projectiles, and smart bombs. A typical system is described.
Standard

Long-Term Storage of Missile Hydraulic Systems

2013-10-04
CURRENT
AIR974B
Much of the available long-term storage test data has been reviewed and topically separated to enable the independent discussion of storage effects on fluids, seals, hydraulic components, and hydraulic systems. Comments are made in Section 4 concerning the applicability of the test results and regarding design practices for storability. Conclusions are drawn in Section 5 regarding inactive storage of hydraulic systems for at least a 7 year period.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

2012-11-15
CURRENT
AIR4002A
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
Standard

Long-Term Storage of Missile Hydraulic Systems

2008-11-06
HISTORICAL
AIR974A
Much of the available long-term storage test data has been reviewed and topically separated to enable the independent discussion of storage effects on fluids, seals, hydraulic components, and hydraulic systems. Comments are made in Section 4 concerning the applicability of the test results and regarding design practices for storability. Conclusions are drawn in Section 5 regarding inactive storage of hydraulic systems for at least a 7 year period.
Standard

AIRBORNE HYDRAULIC AND CONTROL SYSTEM SURVIVABILITY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT

2007-05-23
HISTORICAL
AIR1083B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides the hydraulic system designer with the various design options and techniques currently available to enhance the survivability of hydraulic systems. A comprehensive knowledge of the hostile environment to which the air vehicle will be exposed will form the basis upon which the overall design philosophy is formulated. The designer should strive to achieve at the absolute minimum a system which provides the actuation and control capability to meet the minimum acceptable flying quality level to complete the operational mission for which the aircraft is designed; i.e., the aircraft can be controlled and the mission terminated safely, including landing. This AIR will attempt to address the following threats: a Typical Small Arms Fire (5.56, 7.62, 12.7 and 14.5 mm AP) b Cannon (20, 30, and 40 mm API/HEI) c NBC/EMI/EMP/Beamed Particle d Chemical/Biological Protection against missiles is beyond the scope of this AIR.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

2004-03-18
HISTORICAL
AIR4002
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
Standard

Handbook of Hydraulic Metric Calculations

2003-09-25
HISTORICAL
AIR1657B
Metric (SI and CGS) and English units related to aerospace hydraulics are summarized. Conversion of units is provided as required. Fundamental fluid properties and physical laws governing fluid motion, pressure and other significant aspects are described in SI metric units. Examples of application to typical aerospace hydraulic system components are demonstrated.
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