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Steering Effect of Tilted, Free-Swiveling Nose Gears

2022-06-27
CURRENT
AIR4358A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) considers the origin of cornering forces generated by tilted, free-swiveling nose gears; the effect of various landing gear parameters on the measured cornering forces; and a method of towing aircraft to measure the resulting steering forces.
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Runway Condition Monitoring Systems

2022-04-13
WIP
AIR6697
This report will document Runway Condition Monitoring systems that provide information intended to reduce or eliminate aircraft runway excursions or overruns that may occur as a result of poor runway conditions.
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Effects of Extremely Cold Temperature on Landing Gear Operation

2022-03-29
CURRENT
AIR6411
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on landing gear operation in cold temperature environments. It covers all operational aspects during ground handling, takeoff, and landing. It includes effects on tires, brakes, shock struts, seals, and actuators.
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Aircraft Ground Flotation Analysis Methods

2021-09-16
WIP
ARP1821C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) includes recommended ground flotation analysis methods for both paved and unpaved airfields with application to both commercial and military aircraft.
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Overview of Aircraft Landing Gear Shimmy Analysis Methods

2021-06-10
CURRENT
AIR6280
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides an overview of the tire properties, strut properties, damper properties, and other landing gear mechanical properties that contribute to shimmy stability and are required for shimmy analysis. A variety of analysis techniques and assumptions are presented.
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Landing Gear Alignment

2021-04-23
CURRENT
AIR5556
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report is to provide the industry with methodologies for measuring tire/wheel gear alignment and the range of acceptable alignment settings for various types of non-military landing gear. This AIR will focus on the general aviation, corporate, and regional aircraft landing gear but could have applicability to commercial aircraft.
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Landing Gear Storage

2021-04-23
CURRENT
ARP5936
This document categorizes the different types of storage requirements, either on the aircraft or new unused or overhauled on the shelf, for aircraft landing gears/components. Recommendations and examples of proper landing gear storage are outlined. Reclamation recommendations are provided for aircraft landing gear returning from long-term storage.
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Rotorcraft: Application of Existing Aircraft Designed Tires, Wheels and Brakes

2021-04-23
CURRENT
ARP5632
This document covers recommendations for the application of existing qualified and approved in-service fixed wing aircraft tires, wheels and brakes to military and commercial rotorcraft. NOTE: This document does not address the use of radial tires due to insufficient data to support their approved use on rotorcraft, see paragraph 4.3.14 for specific impact on ground resonance.
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Aircraft Flotation Analysis

2021-04-23
CURRENT
AIR1780A
This document is divided into five parts. The first part deals with flotation analysis features and definitions to acquaint the engineer with elements common to the various methods and the meanings of the terms used. The second part identifies and describes the various methods used. To accomplish the minimum intent of this document, techniques could be limited to those needed for flotation analysis only; however, because of the close relation between flotation analysis and runway design, methods for the latter are also included. In fact, runway design criteria are used for flotation and evaluation in some cases, and are periodically the governing procedure in specific, if isolated, instances. From time to time, it may be necessary to deal with runways built to obsolete criteria. Therefore, a listing of most of these constitutes the third part.
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Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) for Aircraft

2021-04-21
WIP
ARP6137A
A tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is a means to electronically measure and report the current tire pressure. Some systems are capable of transmitting the information to the flight deck while other systems are for use on the ground by maintenance personnel (only). This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document is intended to establish overall component and system function guidelines and minimum performance levels for a TPMS. The system should visually indicate the tire inflation pressure status. These guidelines include, but are not limited to: a) Design recommendations for system components, which: 1. monitor tire inflation, and, 2. are located in/on the tire/wheel assembly, landing gear axle, and/or aircraft avionics compartment. b) Recommended performance and safety guidelines for a TPMS.
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Aircraft Flotation Analysis

2021-04-21
WIP
AIR1780B
This document is divided into five parts. The first part deals with flotation analysis features and definitions to acquaint the engineer with elements common to the various methods and the meanings of the terms used. The second part identifies and describes the various methods used. To accomplish the minimum intent of this document, techniques could be limited to those needed for flotation analysis only; however, because of the close relation between flotation analysis and runway design, methods for the latter are also included. In fact, runway design criteria are used for flotation and evaluation in some cases, and are periodically the governing procedure in specific, if isolated, instances. From time to time, it may be necessary to deal with runways built to obsolete criteria. Therefore, a listing of most of these constitutes the third part.
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Landing Gear System Development Plan

2021-02-11
CURRENT
ARP1598C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to document the process of landing gear system development. This document includes landing gear system development plans for commercial/military, fixed wing, and rotary wing air vehicles.
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Catalog of Landing Gear Systems and Suppliers

2021-02-03
CURRENT
AIR5631A
The purpose of this document is to provide a listing for current commercial and military aircraft landing gear systems and their types and manufacturers. Data has been provided for the following commercial aircraft types; wide body jet airliners, narrow body jet airliners, and turboprop/commuter aircraft and the following military aircraft types; fighter, bomber, cargo, attack, surveillance, tanker and helicopter categories. The aircraft that have been included in this document are in operational service either with airlines, business, cargo or military operators. No information is presented for aircraft that are currently being developed or that are not in extensive usage. This document will provide an informational reference for landing gear engineers to access when evaluating other gear and aircraft systems. Future revisions of this document will add aircraft as they enter into service.
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Landing Gear (Engine Off) Taxi System

2021-02-03
CURRENT
AIR6246
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will review new landing gear (engine off) taxi system technologies currently being developed by various companies and describe the basic design concepts and potential benefits and issues. This AIR will identify the associated systems that could be affected by this new technology. The document will review basic design and operational requirements, failure modes and identify system certification requirements that may need to be addressed. The technology is evolving as this paper is being written and the data present is currently up to date as of 2015.
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Landing Gear Structural Health Monitoring

2019-05-23
CURRENT
AIR6168A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses past and present approaches for monitoring the landing gear structure and shock absorber (servicing), opportunities for corrosion detection, methods for transient overload detection, techniques for measuring the forces seen by the landing gear structure, and methods for determining the fatigue state of the landing gear structure. Landing gear tire condition and tire pressure monitoring are detailed in ARP6225, AIR4830, and ARP6137, respectively. Aircraft Brake Temperature Monitoring Systems (BTMS) are detailed in AS1145.
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Landing Gear Based Weight and Balance Systems

2019-04-18
WIP
AIR6941
This document outlines historical systems which have used the landing gear as a sensor or installation point for full aircraft weight and balance systems. A number of systems have been developed, installed, certified, and placed in service but few systems remain in regular use. The document will capture the history of these systems, reasons (where known) for their withdrawal from service, and lessons learned.
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Landing Gear System Development Plan

2018-09-02
HISTORICAL
ARP1598B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to document the process of landing gear system development. This document includes landing gear system development plans for commercial, military, fixed wing and rotary wing air vehicles.
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A Guide for the Damaging Effects of Tire and Wheel Failures

2018-04-19
WIP
AIR5699A
Consideration for the damaging effects to aircraft from the failure of wheels and tires should be evaluated. This document discusses the types of problems in-service aircraft have experienced and methodology in place to assist the designers when evaluating threats for new aircraft design. The purpose of this document is to provide a history of in-service problems, provide a historical summary of the design improvements made to wheels and tires during the past 40 years, and to offer methodology which has been used to help designers assess the threat to ensure the functionality of systems and equipment located in and around the landing gear and in wheel wells.
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Inflator Assembly and Gage Elements, Pneumatic Pressure, Remote Control, Direct Reading

2018-04-09
CURRENT
AS85352A
This specification covers a direct reading, remote control, pneumatic pressure inflator assembly, for use on aircraft tires and struts having pneumatic pressure requirements up to 600 psi. It includes pressure relief provisions to provide for safe inflation. Also included are dual chuck stem gages for measuring tire pressure.
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Environmentally Compliant Processes for Landing Gear

2017-07-14
CURRENT
AIR5479B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of plating’s and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
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