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Environmentally Compliant Processes for Landing Gear

2017-07-14
CURRENT
AIR5479B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of plating’s and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
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A Guide to Landing Gear System Integration

2017-07-12
CURRENT
AIR5451A
The landing gear system is a major and safety critical airframe system that needs to be integrated efficiently to meet the overall aircraft program goals of minimizing the penalties of weight, cost, dispatch reliability and maintenance. As the landing gear system business develops and large-scale teaming arrangements and acquisitions become increasingly common, it may be desirable in some instances to procure an Integrated Landing Gear System. This document provides guidelines and useful references for developing an integrated landing gear system for an aircraft. The document structure is divided into four sections: Landing Gear System Configuration Requirements (Section 3) Landing Gear System Functional Requirements (Section 4) Landing Gear System Integrity Requirements (Section 5) Landing Gear System Program Requirements (Section 6) The landing gear system encompasses all landing gear structural and subsystem elements.
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Landing Gear Structural Health Monitoring

2017-05-02
WIP
AIR6168A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses past and present approaches for monitoring the landing gear structure and shock absorber, methods for transient overload detection, techniques for measuring the forces seen by the landing gear structure, and methods for determining the fatigue state of the landing gear structure. This AIR covers the landing gear structure and shock absorber. It does not include the landing gear systems or landing gear wheels, tires and brakes. Landing gear tire condition and pressure monitoring are detailed in AIR4830 and ARP6137, respectively.
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Aircraft Ground Flotation Analysis Methods

2016-12-01
CURRENT
ARP1821B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) includes recommended ground flotation analysis methods for both paved and unpaved airfields with application to both commercial and military aircraft.
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Use of HVOF Thermal Spray Coatings for Hard Chrome Replacement in Landing Gear Applications

2016-09-19
WIP
ARP5935A
Electrolytically deposited chrome plate is the current standard surface treatment for landing gear component interface surfaces that require good wear resistance and corrosion protection. Chrome plated components are typically plagued by a slight debit in fatigue performance, detrimental mud cracking surface pattern, susceptibility to scoring, wear, and seal leakage. In addition, recent changes in environmental compliance standards place further restrictions on the use of electrolytically deposited chromium. Some commercial applications have already eliminated the use of chrome plate on current and future products. As a result, a substitute for electrolytically deposited chrome plate has been sought for several years. High Velocity Oxygenated Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings have been developed to the point where they are being implemented as an alternative to hard chrome plate on high strength low alloy steels for external surfaces on landing gear applications.
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Effects of Extremely Cold Temperature on Landing Gear Operation

2016-03-15
WIP
AIR6411
Provide information and guidance for landing gear operation in cold temperature environment. Covers all operational aspects on ground and in flight. Includes effects on: tires, wheels, brakes, shock strut, seals, and actuation.
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Landing Gear (Engine Off) Taxi System

2015-12-27
CURRENT
AIR6246
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will review new landing gear (engine off) taxi system technologies currently being developed by various companies and describe the basic design concepts and potential benefits and issues. This AIR will identify the associated systems that could be affected by this new technology. The document will review basic design and operational requirements, failure modes and identify system certification requirements that may need to be addressed. The technology is evolving as this paper is being written and the data present is currently up to date as of 2015.
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Catalog of Landing Gear Systems and Suppliers

2015-12-27
CURRENT
AIR5631A
The purpose of this document is to provide a listing for current commercial and military aircraft landing gear systems and their types and manufacturers. Data has been provided for the following commercial aircraft types; wide body jet airliners, narrow body jet airliners, and turboprop/commuter aircraft and the following military aircraft types; fighter, bomber, cargo, attack, surveillance, tanker and helicopter categories. The aircraft that have been included in this document are in operational service either with airlines, business, cargo or military operators. No information is presented for aircraft that are currently being developed or that are not in extensive usage. This document will provide an informational reference for landing gear engineers to access when evaluating other gear and aircraft systems. Future revisions of this document will add aircraft as they enter into service.
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Landing Area/Landing Gear Compatibility - A Brief History of SAE/Corps of Engineers Cooperation

2014-12-01
CURRENT
AIR4243A
This document discusses the work done by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in support of SAE A-5 Committee activity on Aerospace Landing Gear Systems. It is an example of how seemingly unrelated disciplines can be combined effectively for the eventual benefit of the overall aircraft system, where that system includes the total airfield environment in which the aircraft must operate. In summary, this AIR documents the history of aircraft flotation analysis as it involves WES and the SAE.
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Aircraft Shimmy Analysis Methods and Data Requirements

2013-10-21
WIP
AIR6280
This Aerospace Information Report will summarize several existing aircraft landing gear shimmy analysis techniques and provide guidance on the synthesis and testing of tire properties, strut properties, and other landing gear mechanical properties that support the various shimmy analysis methods. This AIR is applicable to large and small fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft for military or civilian use.
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Landing Gear System Development Plan

2013-04-01
CURRENT
ARP1598B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to document the process of landing gear system development. This document includes landing gear system development plans for commercial, military, fixed wing and rotary wing air vehicles.
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A Guide for the Damaging Effects of Tire and Wheel Failures

2012-10-18
WIP
AIR5699A
Consideration for the damaging effects to aircraft from the failure of wheels and tires should be evaluated. This document discusses the types of problems in-service aircraft have experienced and methodology in place to assist the designers when evaluating threats for new aircraft design. The purpose of this document is to provide a history of in-service problems, provide a historical summary of the design improvements made to wheels and tires during the past 40 years and to offer methodology which has been used to help designers assess the threat to ensure the functionality of systems and equipment located in and around the landing gear and in wheel wells.
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Aerospace Landing Gear - FAA Regulatory History - Airplane Wheels, Tires, and Brakes

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR5697A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains regulatory and guidance information related to airplane wheels, tires, and brakes. It contains certain Civil Air Regulations (CAR) and Federal Aviation Regulations (formerly referred to as FARs) from Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in their current version as well as the historical versions. This gives the reader an ability to assemble certain CAR/CFR parts as they existed at any date in the past (referred to as a Regulatory Basis). A certain amount of preamble explanatory material is included, which led to the regulatory rule changes (Amendments to the CFR).
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Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Terminology

2012-05-31
CURRENT
AIR1489C
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology Panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the landing gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided. See also References (a) to (e). Terms listed are usually applicable to a general functional area of landing gear disciplines. These general functional areas include; landing impact, directional ground control, velocity control (acceleration, retardation, and arrestment), structural support, ground flotation, and ground maintenance.
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