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Viewing 1 to 30 of 35
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0644
David J. Grupp, Jay K. Martin
Experiments were conducted using three different ignition systems on a single cylinder, two-stroke research engine. The ignition systems included a transistorized coil ignition (TCI), a capacitive discharge ignition (CDI), and a commercially available multistrike system (JCI). The sparks produced by each ignition system were characterized using three different types of spark plugs. Spark voltage and current data along with simultaneous high speed images of the spark process in a pressurized chamber were obtained. Each ignition system was evaluated in a two-stroke research engine in terms of cyclic variability, misfire rate, and indicated power produced. In addition, ion sensing was used to detect cycle misfires and various strategies were used to improve engine performance.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3339
Suzanne Caulfield, Brandon Rubenstein, Jay K. Martin, Paul Ruppel, Mark Meyer, Steve Lewis, Allen Tang, Brad Tillock
Predictions of the volume flow rate through an inlet port were produced by four different commercially available CFD programs suitable for use in a steady flow simulation. These predictions were compared with experimental measurements of an inlet port's discharge coefficients. The experiment performed was a typical steady state flow bench test for an inlet port. Volume flow rates were measured at five different valve lifts. The largest valve lift tested (12.24mm) was the maximum value of lift under actual operation. The smallest valve lift was typical of early valve opening. The tests were performed at two different pressure differences across the inlet port and valve at each of the five different valve lifts. All predictions were made using an RNG k-ε turbulence model. Standard wall functions were used to predict wall friction effects and the energy equation was included to account for compressibility effects.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1110
Steven J. Lacher, Li Fan, Brad Backer, Jay K. Martin, Rolf Reitz, Jialin Yang, Richard Anderson
Gas-phase in-cylinder mixing was examined by two different methods. The first method for observing mixing involved planar Mie scattering measurements of the instantaneous number density of silicon oil droplets which were introduced to the in-cylinder flow. The local value of the number density was assumed to be representative of the local gas concentration. Because the objective was to observe the rate in which gas concentration gradients change, to provide gradients in number density, droplets were admitted into the engine through only one of the two intake ports. Air only flowed through the other port. Three different techniques were used in analyzing the droplet images to determine the spatially dependent particle number density. Direct counting, a filtering technique, and autocorrelation were used and compared. Further, numerical experiments were performed with the autocorrelation method to check its effectiveness for determination of particle number density.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0284
Brian P. Boyce, Jay K. Martin, Art Poehlman, Doug Shears
In-cylinder heat flux and temperature measurements were obtained in an air-cooled four-stroke utility engine for a range of air-fuel ratios. For these measurements, the magnitude of the integrated heat flux peaked at the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, with an approximately linear decrease on either side of stoichiometric. Advancing the spark generally increased the magnitude of the integrated heat flux. Evaluation of the Brake Specific Integrated Heat Flux (BSIHF) mitigated these trends, and, the effects of changes in timing were eliminated for some operating conditions Examination of the BSIHF from the compression and expansion stroke showed behavior mimicking the full cycle BSIHF. However, the fraction of the total flux contributed by this portion of the cycle varied greatly from approximately 98% of the total to approximately 75% of the total.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0282
Brian P. Boyce, Jay K. Martin, Brad R. Tillock
Measurements of the instantaneous heat flux at three positions on the cylinder head surface, and the steady-state cylinder head temperatures at four positions on the cylinder head have been obtained. Engine tests were performed for a range of air-fuel ratios including regimes rich of stoichiometric, stoichiometric, and lean of stoichiometric. In addition, ignition timing was advanced in increments from 22° BTDC to 40° BTDC. All tests were run with the throttle either fixed in the wide open position, or fixed in a position that produced 75% of the maximum power with the standard ignition timing and an air-fuel ratio of 13.5. This was done to ensure that changes in air mass flow rate were not influencing the results. In addition, all tests were performed with a fuel mixture preparation being provided by system designed to deliver a homogeneous premixed charge to the inlet port. This was done to ensure that mixture preparation issues were not confounding the results.
1998-09-14
Technical Paper
982056
Mitchell P. Patrie, Jay K. Martin, Thomas J. Engman
This study investigates the relationship between intake port geometry, flame position and stability, and combustion rate and emissions in an air-cooled four-stroke engine where three intake ports of differing geometry have been tested. In particular, the production intake port geometry, and directed and helical intake port geometries were tested. It was a specific intent of this study to investigate the interaction between inlet port geometry, equivalence ratio and ignition timing, without interference from mixture preparation effects. Thus all tests were performed using a homogeneous mixture of propane and air. Significant differences in combustion stability, flame position and stability, burn rate and emissions were observed. For example, the flow induced by the helical port, which should be characterized by a dominant swirl motion, resulted in stabile, asymmetric flames at many of the operating conditions studied.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980500
Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Farhan Khatri, Jay K. Martin, Sam W. Coates
Mass-related properties of four atomizers were estimated with the use of a mechanical transient patternator. The properties presented on a temporal and spatial basis are the axial liquid mass flux, liquid fuel to air ratio, and liquid axial velocity. The data are presented in two formats. The first format consists of the mass-related properties that occurred radially between two planes positioned 2.0 cm and 2.25 cm along the atomizer axis. A second format consists of interpolated contour plots of the axial liquid mass flux for all of the spray systems studied. The atomizers used in the study consisted of three liquid-only high-pressure systems and one air-assist system. Two of the liquid-only high-pressure systems and the air - assist system were operated with a volumetric delivery of 20 mm3 per injection while injecting into ambient conditions. A third liquid-only high-pressure system was operated with a delivery of 15 mm3 per injection.
1997-09-08
Technical Paper
972708
Bradley Tillock, Jay K. Martin
In-cylinder heat flux, cylinder pressure, and flame arrival and position data were obtained at air fuel ratios ranging from 11 - 16 at 3060 rpm and approximately 80% load. The engine used was a single cylinder, 5 hp, fixed timing, four stroke, overhead valve, air-cooled engine. Methods of mixture preparation include that produced with the stock carburetor, and with a system designed to provide the engine with a homogeneous mixture (HMS). Heat flux was measured using a thermopile device consisting of 300 thermocouple pairs. A thin film platinum RTD was used to measure the temperature at the thermopile and correct for sensitivity of the thermopile output to thermopile temperature. Flame arrival near the sensor was found through the analysis of an ion voltage signal from a probe located next to the heat sensor. An effort was made to identify and account for the variables which influence in-cylinder heat transfer.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970053
Calvin C. Hung, Jay K. Martin, Ja-Ye Koo
This paper reports on the investigation of injection pressure upon the droplet behavior in transient diesel sprays. Phase/Doppler results for a Diesel spray with a maximum fuel injection line pressure of 105 MPa are compared with previously acquired droplet size and velocity measurements for a Diesel spray with an injection pressure of 21 MPa. All measurements reported here were made in atmospheric conditions at a position near the nozzle. It is shown in these results that the droplet velocity and size profiles do maintain similarity despite the substantial change in injection pressure. Specific characteristics, for example, the appearance of subtle waves in the time-dependent spray data, are present in both data sets. Comparison of the measured droplet velocities and diameters with Weber number based stability criteria shows that increased injection pressure produces a higher percentage of droplets that are likely to breakup.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970630
Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Eric Eberhardt, Jay K. Martin
Two distinct atomization strategies are contrasted through the measurement of time and spatially dependent mass flux. The two systems investigated include a pressure atomizer (6.9 MPa opening pressure) and an air-assist atomizer. Both systems have potential for use in direct injection spark ignition engines. The mass flux data presented were obtained using a spray patternator that was developed to allow phased sampling of the spray. The temporal mass related history of the spray was reconstructed as volume versus time plots and interpolated mass flux contour plots. Results indicate substantial differences in the distribution of both mass and mass flux in space and time for the two injection systems. For example, the pressure atomizer at high mass delivery rates produced a spray that collapsed into a dispersed cylindrical shape while at low rates, generated a hollow cone structure.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970360
Mark V. Casarella, Marc L. Syvertsen, Jay K. Martin, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Jaal B. Ghandhi, Sam W. Coates, Frank A. McGinnity
Previous experiments using an air-assisted spray in a two-stroke direct-injected engine demonstrated a significant improvement in combustion stability at part-load conditions when a wide injection spray was used. It was hypothesized that the decrease in variability was due to the spray following the combustion chamber wall, making it less affected by variations in the in-cylinder gas flows. For this study, experiments were conducted to investigate engine spray combustion for cases where engine performance was not dominated by cyclic variation. Combustion and emission performance data was collected for a wide range of injection timings at several speed/load conditions. Experimental data for combustion shows that combustion stability is relatively unaffected by injection timing changes over a 40 to 100 degree window, and tolerant to spark gap projections over a range of 0.7 to 5.2 mm, depending on operating conditions.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961803
Marc L. Syvertsen, Jay K. Martin, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Sam W. Coates, Frank A. McGinnity
To help understand the fundamental processes involved in direct injection, a research project was conducted using a single-cylinder, two-stroke research engine at a mid-speed, boat load operating condition. A 24 statistical factorial experimental design was applied. Of the factors tested at this operating condition, spray type was the most important factor affecting hydrocarbon emissions, followed by in-cylinder flow-related factors. Injection spray was also most important for nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon monoxide emissions, and efficiency. The dominant mechanism influencing the results was misfire, with other mechanisms present for specific responses.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961730
Edwin Itano, Anthony J. Shakal, Jay K. Martin, Doug Shears, Thomas J. Engman
Three different carburetor types have been tested to observe differences in the characteristics of the fuel/air mixtures produced. To characterize the fuel/air mixtures, two diagnostics have been applied: 1) High speed movies and subsequent analysis of the exit flow, and 2) measurement of the A/F ratio found in different positions within the intake manifold. The three different carburetor types that have been studied include a fixed-venturi, fixed-jet butterfly carburetor, a slide-valve carburetor, and a constant-velocity carburetor. Each carburetor type produced a unique set of exit flow characteristics, with differences in the optical density of fuel exiting the carburetor, and differences in the apparent amount of fuel on the intake manifold wall, entrained in the air flow, and in vapor phase.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961738
Michael J. Cunningham, Jay K. Martin, P. Douglas Shears, Arthur Poehlman
A laboratory-based fuel mixture system capable of delivering a range of fuel/air mixtures has been used to observe the effects of differing mixture characteristics on engine combustion through measurement and analysis of incylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Fuel air mixtures studied can be classified into four different types: 1) Completely homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, where the fuel has been vaporized and mixed with the air prior to entrance into the normal engine induction system, 2) liquid fuel that is atomized and introduced with the air to the normal engine induction system, 3) liquid fuel that is atomized, and partially prevaporized but the air/fuel charge remains stratified up to introduction to the induction system, and 4) the standard fuel metering system. All tests reported here were conducted under wide open throttle conditions. A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type engine was used for all tests.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961731
Brad R. Tillock, Jay K. Martin
Control of the flow of thermal energy in an air-cooled engine is important to the overall performance of the engine because of potential effects on engine performance, durability, design, and emissions. A methodology is being developed for the assessment of thermal flows in air-cooled engines, which includes the use of cycle simulation and in-cylinder heat flux measurements. The mechanism for the combination of cycle simulation, the measurement of in-cylinder heat flux and wall temperatures, and comparison of predicted and measured heat flux in the methodology is presented. The methodology consists of both simulation and experimental phases. To begin, a one-dimensional gas dynamics code (WAVE) has been used in conjunction with a detailed in-cylinder flow and combustion model (IRIS) in order to simulate engine operation in a variety of operating conditions. The methods used to apply the model to the air-cooled engine case are described in detail.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952078
Barbara Westrate, Ed Itano, Jeff Hoffman, Jay K. Martin
This paper describes the development of diagnostics and testing methods for the characterization of carburetor exit flow conditions in small utility engines. These diagnostics include: 1) Three different methods of acquiring intake flow photographs. 2) A technique to measure the thickness of the fuel film running along the bottom of the intake manifold using the electrical properties of the fuel. 3) A system for measuring the A/F ratio across the carburetor exit using a heated catalyst to oxidize the sampled mixture and a wide-range oxygen sensor to determine the A/F of the reacted sample.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952081
Robert J. Bonneau, Michael J. Cunningham, Jay K. Martin
A laboratory-based fuel mixture preparation system has been developed that is capable of generating a wide range of fuel/air mixtures, including production of a premixed, prevaporized homogeneous charge, beginning with liquid gasoline fuel. This system has been developed to allow the study of the effects of fuel/air mixture preparation characteristics on engine combustion, in-cylinder pressure, and exhaust emissions. For the study to be described here, engine combustion behavior and emissions measurements were obtained for a wide range of A/F's with the fuel mixture preparation being produced in one case, by the stock carburetor operating with fixed throttle position, and the other case, with the custom-built system producing a homogeneous mixture (HM.) A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type utility engine was used for all tests.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940903
Joseph S. Shakal, Jay K. Martin
A two-stroke diesel engine was outfitted for operation with an electronic solenoid-controlled unit injector and an additional solenoid-controlled air-assisted injector at the inlet ports. Access through an existing pressure transducer port allowed installation of a sapphire window to the combustion chamber with very little disturbance to the combustion system. A coherent fiber optic bundle permitted remote visualization of the combustion event. Use of a gateable intensified solid-state camera permitted imaging at high effective shutter speeds at arbitrary times in the engine cycle. Imaging and two-color temperature and soot concentrations measurements were performed. Imaging results indicated a low-intensity diffuse ignition, away from the injector tip, for both the pilot spray in pilot-main tests and the main spray in the main-only runs. Remnants of the burning pilot spray congregated near the injector tip where a region of flame remained until main injection arrived.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940677
Joseph S. Shakal, Jay K. Martin
A two-stroke diesel engine was outfitted for operation with an electronic solenoid-controlled unit injector and an additional solenoid-controlled air-assisted injector at the inlet ports. Factorial experiments were designed in order to quantify, in a statistically representative manner, the effects of pilot (or ‘split’) and port auxiliary injection on main fuel combustion. Results indicated that interactions between experimental parameters (such as between pilot fuel quantity and pilot-to-main spacing), as well as main effects are important in analyzing auxiliary fuel injection. The bulk gas temperature at main injection was determined primarily by the experimental parameters acting independently of one another, which is a case where main effects only are important. Conversely, analysis of indicated specific fuel consumption and peak cylinder pressure involved interactions of the experimental parameters in both cases.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940813
Paul C. Cross, Craig N. Hansen, Jay K. Martin
A Rotary Valve combustion System (RVS) is being developed which is a potential alternative to the conventional poppet valve combustion chamber systems currently in use on four-stroke reciprocating automotive engines. The RVS has been developed to operate in a Variable Valve Timing (VVT) mode, termed RVS/VVT. The system accomplishes variation of intake-valve-closure from 50 degrees After-Top-Center (ATC) to 250 degrees ATC. This broad range of variability is necessary to achieve throttleless power control from idle to full power. The RVS was evaluated for characteristics which were independent of its valve timing mode. These included: (1) system friction, (2) seal effectiveness, and (3) combustion performance at full load. System friction for the RVS valve train was measured by a pulley transducer on the drive-belt. Seal effectiveness was evaluated by static differential compression tests and dynamic blowby measurements.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932444
Ted G. Angelo, Jay K. Martin, Gary L. Borman
The objective of this study was to observe and attempt to understand the effects of equivalence ratio and simulated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the exhaust emissions and performance of a L-head single cylinder utility engine. In order to isolate these effects and limit the confounding influences caused by poor fuel mixture preparation and/or vaporization produced by the carburetor/intake port combination, the engine was operated on a premixed propane/air mixture. To simulate the effects of EGR, a homogeneous mixture of propane, air, and nitrogen was used. Engine measurements were obtained at the operating conditions specified by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Raw Gas Method Test Procedure. Measurements included exhaust emissions levels of HC, CO, and NOx, and engine pressure data.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920419
Jamshed B. Ghandhi, Jay K. Martin
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to study the velocity field characteristics in motored two-stroke ported engines. Measurements of the two-dimensional velocity field were made at the midplane of the clearance volume for bowl-in-head and disk combustion chamber geometries. Measurements were also obtained for two scavenging port geometries, i.e. a loop-scavenged engine and a loop-scavenged engine with a boost port. Results from this study show that in-cylinder geometry had a dominant effect on the flow structure observed at TDC. For example, with the boost-port scavenging crankcase, the disk-shaped chamber showed a turbulent flow-field at TDC with little large scale motion. In contrast, addition of a squish flow from the bowl-in-head geometry produced an organized cross-chamber flow. The addition of a boost port also changed the flow structure markedly. A large-scale swirl flow was observed in the engine that did not contain a boost port.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920152
Philip H. Pierce, Jamshed B. Ghandhi, Jay K. Martin
To study the near-wall velocity characteristics, gas velocity measurements have been made near the cylinder head of a motored four-stroke engine using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and near-wall flow characteristics have been observed in three different two-stroke geometries using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and particle photographs. The results of these studies show that the behavior of the fluid near the wall depends on the engine intake geometry, combustion chamber geometry, and operating condition. The near-wall velocity characteristics tend to be one of two forms. In one form, the behavior is one of an extended region of low momentum fluid, where an imbalance in radial pressure gradient forces and centripetal forces exists because of the combined effects of fluid rotation and shear. Such a flow can be seen in engines with gas exchange systems that do not promote scrubbing of the wall, and in cylinder geometry that does not cause flow normal to the wall.
1991-10-01
Technical Paper
912352
Timothy S. Reid, Jay K. Martin
Instantaneous heat flux and flame position were measured on a silicon nitride diesel engine head. Ionization probes and thin-film platinum temperature detectors were applied directly to the head surface. The ionization probes showed that the flame exited the bowl and propagated asymmetrically from the centerline of the combustion bowl. The temperature measurements revealed that average surface temperatures varied with position by more than 200°C. Spatial variations in the temperature swings were also present with large swings resulting from direct combustion effects on heat transfer at locations near the lip of the piston bowl. Peak instantaneous heat flux values varied from 0.3 to 2.0 MW/m2. Five of the seven probe locations exhibited heat transfer rates that were limited due to the combustion rate. At three different positions, the peak heat flux magnitude and phasing were independent of load.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910179
Ja-Ye Koo, Jay K. Martin
- Two sets of comparisons were made in an attempt to provide a mechanism for understanding the behavior of transient sprays. First, detailed measurements of drop size and velocity in a transient spray were compared to established stability criteria for different droplet breakup mechanisms, specifically criteria for bag breakup and boundary layer stripping. Then, probability-density-functions were determined from the experimental data and compared, where appropriate, to different computed distributions (such as the Chi-square or log-hyperbolic distributions). Comparison with the stability criteria indicates that the a majority of droplets in the spray are susceptible to both breakup mechanisms near the injector tip. However, downstream, the spray appears to stabilize and any redistribution of droplet size must apparently be a result of collisions. The experimentally-determined PDF's for size and velocity are functions of both position and time in the spray.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900398
Joseph Shakal, Jay K. Martin
- Pilot injection and two other forms of auxiliary fuel introduction have been studied for their effects on diesel engine combustion and emissions. A two-stroke diesel has been equipped with an electronic solenoid-controlled unit injector such that the injector can operate with pilot injection. In addition, the engine has been fitted with experimental air-blast atomizing injectors in the inlet port and intake manifold. In-cylinder pressure, Bosch smoke, exhaust hydrocarbons, NO and NOx emissions measurements have been made for a range of engine conditions. In addition, two fuels have been tested to observe the effects of fuel blend on the auxiliary fuel behavior. In general, the effect of auxiliary fuel introduction is to reduce ignition delay and rate-of-pressure rise. This tends to result in a decrease in NO emissions. Unburned hydrocarbons and smoke tend to increase, although not in every case.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900397
Ja-Ye Koo, Jay K. Martin
- Simultaneous droplet sizes and velocities were obtained for a transient diesel fuel spray in a quiescent chamber at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Instantaneous injection pressure, needle lift, and rate of injection were also measured, allowing calculation of the instantaneous nozzle discharge coefficient. Short-exposure still photographs were obtained at various chamber pressure and densities to further investigate this spray. Correlations between droplet size and velocity were determined at each crank angle to observe the detailed nature of the transient events occurring in this transient diesel fuel spray. As expected, peak mean and rms velocities are observed in the center of the spray. Measured average velocities are consistent with a calculated value, using the discharge coefficient for the nozzle and the known rate of fuel injection.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900690
Jialin Yang, Jay K. Martin
Consideration of the heat transfer effects in low-heat-rejection engines has prompted further study into engine heat transfer phenomena. In a previous study, an approximate solution of the one-dimensional energy equation was acquired for transient, compressible, low-Mach number, turbulent boundary layers typical of those found in engines. The current study shows that an approximate solution of the one-dimensional energy equation with arbitrarily-distributed heat release can also be obtained. Using this model, the effects of high temperature walls, combustion, and autoignition on heat transfer can be studied. In the case of high temperature walls, the model predicts the expected behavior unless the quench distance gets very small. For combustion, the reaction must occur close to the wall for a direct effect on the heat transfer to be observed. With autoignition, instantaneous values of heat flux reach levels as high as 6 MW/m2, and oscillate in phase with the pressure wave.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890159
Donald J. Remboski, Steven L Plee, Jay K. Martin
Abstract An in-cylinder optical sensor has been developed and tested for use in spark-ignition engine combustion analysis and control, This sensor measures the luminous emission in the near infrared region. Results of these tests show good correlation between the measured luminosity and traditional combustion parameters, such as location and magnitude of maximum cylinder pressure, and location and magnitude of maximum heat release. Engine performance indicators, such as the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), also can be determined accurately with the measured luminosity combined with other engine operating parameters, e.g. intake manifold pressure. In-cylinder air-fuel ratio can be determined with accuracy over an ensemble of 100 cycles.
1988-09-01
Technical Paper
881314
Jialin Yang, Philip Pierce, Jay K. Martin, David E. Foster
In the first part of this study, a one-dimensional code was used to compare predictions from six different two-equation turbulence models. It is shown that the application of the traditional k-ε models to the viscous-dominated region of the boundary layer can produce errors in both the calculated heat flux and surface friction. A low-Reynolds-number model does not appear to predict similar non-physical effects. A new one-dimensional model, which includes the effect of compression, has been formulated by multiparameter fit to the numerical solution of the energy equation. This model can be used in place of the law-of-the-wall to calculate the surface heat flux. The experiments were performed in a specially-instrumented engine, allowing optical access to the clearance volume. Measurements of heat flux, swirl velocities, and momentum boundary layer thickness were made for different engine speeds.
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