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Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

2016-11-07
2016-22-0001
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Technical Paper

Pediatric Head Contours and Inertial Properties for ATD Design

2010-11-03
2010-22-0009
Child head trauma in the United States is responsible for 30% of all childhood injury deaths with costs estimated at $10 billion per year. The common tools for studying this problem are the child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The headform sizes and structural properties of child ATDs are based on various anthropometric studies and scaled Hybrid III mass and center of gravity (CG) properties. The goals of this study were to produce pediatric head and skull contours, provide estimates of pediatric head mass, mass moment of inertia and CG locations, and compare the head contours with the current child ATD head designs. To that end, computer tomography (CT) scans from one hundred eighty-five children in twelve age groups were analyzed to develop three-dimensional head and skull contours. The contours were averaged to estimate head and skull contours for children aged 1 month to 10 years. Inertial properties were estimated from a small sample of post-mortem human subjects (PMHSs).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Field Relevance of Several Injury Risk Functions

2010-11-03
2010-22-0004
An evaluation of the four injury risk curves proposed in the NHTSA NCAP for estimating the risk of AIS≻=3 injuries to the head, neck, chest and AIS≻=2 injury to the Knee-Thigh-Hip (KTH) complex has been conducted. The predicted injury risk to the four body regions based on driver dummy responses in over 300 frontal NCAP tests were compared against those to drivers involved in real-world crashes of similar severity as represented in the NASS. The results of the study show that the predicted injury risks to the head and chest were slightly below those in NASS, and the predicted risk for the knee-thigh-hip complex was substantially below that observed in the NASS. The predicted risk for the neck by the Nij curve was greater than the observed risk in NASS by an order of magnitude due to the Nij risk curve predicting a non-zero risk when Nij = 0. An alternative and published Nte risk curve produced a risk estimate consistent with the NASS estimate of neck injury.
Technical Paper

Rationale for and Dimensions of Impact Surfaces for Biofidelity Tests of Different Sizes of Frontal and Side Impact Dummies

2010-11-03
2010-22-0002
The biofidelity impact response corridors that were used to develop the Hybrid III family of dummies were established by scaling the various biofidelity corridors that were defined for the Hybrid III mid-size, adult male dummy. Scaling ratios for the responses of force, moment, acceleration, velocity, deflection, angle, stiffness and time were developed using dimensions and masses that were prescribed for the dummies. In addition, an elastic modulus ratio for bone was used to account for the differences between child and adult bone elastic properties. A similar method is being used by ISO/TC22/SC12/WG 5 to develop biofidelity guidelines for a family of side impact dummies based on scaling the biofidelity impact response corridors that are prescribed for WorldSID, a mid-size, adult male dummy.
Technical Paper

Effects of Shoulder Belt Limit Forces on Adult Thoracic Protection in Frontal Collisions

2007-10-29
2007-22-0015
Three-point restraint systems have been installed in vehicles since the early 1960s. However, it wasn't until the automatic protection rule became effective for 1987 Model Year vehicles that manufacturers began installing 3-point restraints with force-limiting shoulder belts and frontal airbags for the driver and right front passenger. This was the first time that all vehicle manufacturers had to certify that their cars would meet the 50th percentile, adult male protection requirements in the 48 km/h frontal, rigid-barrier test specified in FMVSS 208. To assess the effectiveness of these certified 3-point restraint systems, a search was done of the 1988-2005 NASS data for 3-point belted, front outboard-seated, adult occupants in passenger vehicles that were equipped with airbags and that were involved in frontal, towaway collisions.
Technical Paper

Side Impact Response Corridors for the Rigid Flat-Wall and Offset-Wall Side Impact Tests of NHTSA Using the ISO Method of Corridor Development

2005-11-09
2005-22-0019
The purpose of this paper is to compare the biofidelity rating schemes of ISO/TR9790 and the NHTSA Bio Rank System. This paper describes the development of new impact response corridors being proposed for ISO/TR9790 from the results of a recent series of side-impact sled tests. The response data were analyzed by methods consistent with ISO/TR9790, including normalization by impulse-momentum analysis and the elimination of subjects that sustained six or more rib fractures. Unlike ISO/TR9790, this paper proposes the elimination of the data from tests in which the timing and the sequence of loading of the individual impact plates were inconsistent compared to other tests conducted with the same impact wall configuration.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the ES-2re Dummy in Biofidelity, Component, and Full Vehicle Crash Tests

2005-11-09
2005-22-0021
This technical paper presents the results from tests conducted with the ES-2re, a version of the ES-2 side impact dummy that was modified by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to improve its performance in crash tests. Through the series of biofidelity tests conducted on the ES-2re, described in International Standards Organization (ISO) Technical Report (TR)9790 (1999), the OSRP observed a final overall biofidelity ranking of 4.1 for the ES-2re, which corresponds to an ISO classification of “marginal.” The biofidelity of the ES-2re is compared to that of the ES-2 and the WorldSID. Repeatability was also evaluated on the ES-2re based on the biofidelity test data. Additional pendulum tests were performed to assess the response of the dummy in oblique loading conditions, and results indicate that oblique loading from the front leads to significantly reduced rib deflections.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Bases for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2003-10-27
2003-22-0009
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, EuroSID2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for Assessing the Biofidelity of Side Impact Dummies of Various Sizes and Ages

2002-11-11
2002-22-0016
The Human Mechanical Simulation Subcommittee of the Human Biomechanics and Simulation Standards Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers took on the task of defining test procedures and associated response guidelines to be used to assess the level of biofidelity of side impact dummies that are being developed. This paper describes the results of their efforts. Guidelines are provided for assessing the levels of biofidelity of dummies that represent 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants, 3-, 6-, and 10-year-old children, and of dummies that represent a small female, midsize male and large male adults. These guidelines were developed by normalizing the side impact biofidelity guidelines that were established by the International Standards Organization for the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the midsize adult male.
Technical Paper

ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses

2002-11-11
2002-22-0018
This technical paper presents the results of biomechanical testing conducted on the ES-2 dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership and Transport Canada. The ES-2 is a production dummy, based on the EuroSID-1 dummy, that was modified to further improve testing capabilities as recommended by users of the EuroSID-1 dummy. Biomechanical response data were obtained by completing a series of drop, pendulum, and sled tests that are outlined in the International Organization of Standardization Technical Report 9790 that describes biofidelity requirements for the midsize adult male side impact dummy. A few of the biofidelity tests were conducted on both sides of the dummy to evaluate the symmetry of its responses. Full vehicle crash tests were conducted to verify if the changes in the EuroSID-1, resulting in the ES-2 design, did improve the dummy's testing capability. In addition to the biofidelity testing, the ES-2 dummy repeatability, reproducibility and durability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Improved Neck Injury Risk Curves for Tension and Extension Moment Measurements of Crash Dummies

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC05
This paper describes improvements made to the injury risk curves for peak neck tension, peak neck extension moment and a linear combination of tension and extension moment that produce peak stress in the anterior-longitudinal ligament at the head-to-neck junction. Data from previously published experiments that correlated neck injuries to 10-week-old, anesthetized pigs and neck response measurements of a 3-year-old child dummy that were subjected to similar airbag deployments are updated and used to generate Normal probability curves for the risk of AIS ≥ 3 neck injury for the 3-year-old child. These curves are extended to other sizes and ages by normalizing for neck size. Factors for percent of muscle tone and ligamentous failure stress as a function of age are incorporated in the risk analysis. The most sensitive predictor of AIS ≥ 3 neck injury for this data set is peak neck tension.
Technical Paper

SID-IIs Beta+-Prototype Dummy Biomechanical Responses

1998-11-02
983151
This paper presents the results of biomechanical testing of the SID-IIs beta+-prototype dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the dummy against its previously established biomechanical response corridors for its critical body regions. The response corridors were scaled from the 50th percentile adult male corridors defined in International Standards Organization Technical Report 9790 to corridors for a 5th percentile adult female, using established International Standards Organization procedures. Tests were performed for the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis regions of the dummy. Testing included drop tests, pendulum impacts and sled tests. The biofidelity of the SID-IIs beta+-prototype was calculated using a weighted biomechanical test response procedure developed by the International Standards Organization.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for Children and Adults in Frontal and Rear Collisions

1997-11-12
973318
This paper describes the development of injury risk curves for measurements made with the CRABI and Hybrid III family of biofidelic child and adult dummies that are used to evaluate restraint systems in frontal and rear-end collision simulations. Injury tolerance data are normalized for size and strength considerations. These data are analyzed to give normalized injury risk curves for neck tension, neck extension moment, combined neck tension and extension moment, sternal compression, the rate of sternal compression, and the rate of abdominal compression for children and adults. Using these injury risk curves dummy response limits can be defined for prescribed injury risk levels. The injury risk levels associated with the various injury assessment reference values currently used with the CRABI and Hybrid III family of dummies are noted.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Limiting Shoulder Belt Load with Air Bag Restraint

1995-02-01
950886
The dilemma of using a shoulder belt force limiter with a 3-point belt system is selecting a limit load that will balance the reduced risk of significant thoracic injury due to the shoulder belt loading of the chest against the increased risk of significant head injury due to the greater upper torso motion allowed by the shoulder belt load limiter. However, with the use of air bags, this dilemma is more manageable since it only occurs for non-deploy accidents where the risk of significant head injury is low even for the unbelted occupant. A study was done using a validated occupant dynamics model of the Hybrid III dummy to investigate the effects that a prescribed set of shoulder belt force limits had on head and thoracic responses for 48 and 56 km/h barrier simulations with driver air bag deployment and for threshold crash severity simulations with no air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

Brain Injury Risk Assessment of Frontal Crash Test Results

1994-03-01
941056
An objective, biomechanically based assessment is made of the risks of life-threatening brain injury of frontal crash test results. Published 15 ms HIC values for driver and right front passenger dummies of frontal barrier crash tests conducted by Transport Canada and NHTSA are analyzed using the brain injury risk curve of Prasad and Mertz. Ninety-four percent of the occupants involved in the 30 mph, frontal barrier compliance tests had risks of life-threatening brain injury less than 5 percent. Only 3 percent had risks greater than 16 percent which corresponds to 15 ms HIC > 1000. For belt restrained occupants without head contact with the interior, the risks of life-threatening brain injury were less than 2 percent. In contrast, for the more severe NCAP test condition, 27 percent of the drivers and 21 percent of the passengers had life-threatening brain injury risks greater than 16 percent.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Assessment of Belt Restraint Systems Based on Hybrid III Chest Compression

1991-10-01
912895
Measurement of chest compression is vital to properly assessing injury risk for restraint systems. It directly relates chest loading to the risk of serious or fatal compression injury for the vital organs protected by the rib cage. Other measures of loading such as spinal acceleration or total restraint load do not separate how much of the force is applied to the rib cage, shoulders, or lumbar and cervical spines. Hybrid III chest compression is biofidelic for blunt impact of the sternum, but is “stiff” for belt loading. In this study, an analysis was conducted of two published crash reconstruction studies involving belted occupants. This provides a basis for comparing occupant injury risks with Hybrid III chest compression in similar exposures. Results from both data sources were similar and indicate that belt loading resulting in 40 mm Hybrid III chest compression represents a 20-25% risk of an AIS≥3 thoracic injury.
Technical Paper

Hybrid III Sternal Deflection Associated with Thoracic Injury Severities of Occupants Restrained with Force-Limiting Shoulder Belts

1991-02-01
910812
A relationship between the risk of significant thoracic injury (AIS ≥ 3) and Hybrid III dummy sternal deflection for shoulder belt loading is developed. This relationship is based on an analysis of the Association Peugeot-Renault accident data of 386 occupants who were restrained by three-point belt systems that used a shoulder belt with a force-limiting element. For 342 of these occupants, the magnitude of the shoulder belt force could be estimated with various degrees of certainty from the amount of force-limiting band ripping. Hyge sled tests were conducted with a Hybrid III dummy to reproduce the various degrees of band tearing. The resulting Hybrid III sternal deflections were correlated to the frequencies of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury observed for similar band tearing in the field accident data. This analysis indicates that for shoulder belt loading a Hybrid III sternal deflection of 50 mm corresponds to a 40 to 50% risk of an AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the EUROSID and SID Impact Responses to the Response Corridors of the International Standards Organization

1989-02-01
890604
Side impact tests were conducted on the EUROSID and SID to assess their biofidelity compared to the response requirements of the international Standards Organization. The body regions evaluated were the head, neck, thorax, shoulder, abdomen, and pelvis. Test conditions and data normalization procedures are outlined in the report. Data plots are given which compare the impact response of each dummy to the ISO requirements. The EUROSID gave humanlike responses for most tests involving padded surface impacts, but its responses were not humanlike for rigid surface impacts. Overall, the EUROSID responses were more humanlike than the responses of the SID.
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