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Journal Article

Evaluation of Virtual NOx Sensor Models for Off Road Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

NOx and PM are the critical emissions to meet the legislation limits for diesel engines. Often a value for these emissions is needed online for on-board diagnostics, engine control, exhaust aftertreatment control, model-based controller design or model-in-the-loop simulations. Besides the obvious method of measuring these emissions, a sensible alternative is to estimate them with virtual sensors. A lot of literature can be found presenting different modeling approaches for NOx emissions. Some are very close to the physics and the chemical reactions taking place inside the combustion chamber, others are only given by adapting general functions to measurement data. Hence, generally speaking, there is not a certain method which is seen as the solution for modeling emissions. Finding the best model approach is not straightforward and depends on the model application, the available measurement channels and the available data set for calibration.
Technical Paper

EGR Reference Allocation for Diesel Engine Air System Control

The control of the engine air system is an essential part for meeting the emission levels of current and upcoming legislation. Up to now different strategies were presented in the literature and also applied on real systems. Starting from simple single-input-single-output structures in combination with feedforward parts leading to advanced multi-input-multi-output approaches. Nevertheless, independent of the used control approach for each of them suitable references are necessary. Although it seems adequate to directly use the emission target quantities in a closed loop air system control, a fast and accurate measurement is seldom available. An alternative is to use intermediate quantities as references, like fresh air mass flow or oxygen concentrations, which represent the state of the air system. However, for control purposes each of these quantities has to be determined, i.e., measured or calculated.
Technical Paper

Gray Box Diesel Engine Soot Emission Modeling Based on Two-Color Spectroscopy Measurements

Modeling the soot emissions of a Diesel engine is a challenge. Although it was part of many works before, it is still not a solved issue and has a substantial potential for improvement. A major problem is the presence of two competing effects during combustion, soot formation and soot oxidation, whereas only the cumulative difference of these effects can be measured in the exhaust. There is a wide consensus that it is sensible to design crank angle resolved models for both effects. Indeed, many authors propose crank angle based soot models which are mostly based on detailed first principles based structures, e.g. spray models, engine process calculations etc. Although these models are appealing from a theoretical point of view, they are all lacking of the required measurement information to validate all the complex model parts. Finally, most parts of the model remain at their assumed values and only a few parameters are used for calibration.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transient PM Emissions in Diesel Engine

Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. To this end this paper is concerned with the challenge of measuring emissions during transients. The importance of this topic is increasing due to strict regulation on pollutant emissions. Hence, suitably accurate and fast measurement devices for PM emission detection are required. Thus, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for Particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Diesel engine, in particular during transients. The compared equipments include AVL Micro soot sensor, AVL Opacimeter, Differential mobility spectrometer and Laser induced incandescence. The goal of this paper is to reveal the most accurate device in the sense of sensitivity and dynamics for fast measurements of PM from a Diesel engine.
Journal Article

Simplified Calculation of Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Properties for Diesel Combustion

Computation of combustion, in particular of emissions over crank angle, relies on chemical oriented models. In some cases, chemical equilibrium can be assumed, as chemical reaction time scales tend to be fast compared to the crank rotation, so the rather complex reaction kinetics can be neglected. For engine process calculation based on the measured cylinder pressure chemical equilibrium concentrations are needed for every crank angle or calculation time step. On the one hand the equilibrium concentrations are necessary for estimating the thermodynamic properties of the working gas (internal energy and specific gas constant) which are needed for deriving the energy release (burn rate) and on the other hand the obtained concentrations are inputs for crank angle based soot and nitric oxygen emission models which depends also on the engine process calculation results.
Technical Paper

On-line Abatement of Transient NOx and PM Diesel Engine Emissions by Oxygen Based Optimal Control

Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. This paper is concerned with their reduction, in particular of nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, by online receding horizon optimal control. It is based on former works in which alternative target quantities for engine control were proposed, namely in-cylinder oxygen concentrations before (O2,BC) and after combustion (O2,AC). The actual work is concerned with testing an in-cylinder oxygen concentrations based control in simulation as well as by a real-time implementation on a turbocharged common rail passenger car production Diesel engine. The promising results confirm the choice of these concentrations as sensible control references and the feasibility of a real-time use in a model predictive control implementation.
Technical Paper

Control Oriented Crank Angle Based Analysis of Soot Dynamics During Diesel Combustion

This paper presents a detailed optical and thermodynamic analysis of effects which influences the soot formation and oxidation process during Diesel combustion. To measure the actual soot concentration over crank angle an optical sensor was installed on the engine. In combination with a thermodynamic engine process calculation, based on the measured cylinder pressure, several important effects are analyzed and described in detail. The main focus of the paper is to produce knowledge on how soot dynamics is influenced by changed engine control unit (ECU) calibration parameters. A modern 4 cylinder production car Diesel engine was used for the studies, which offers a lot of opportunities to influence combustion by varying injection timing and air path ECU parameters. As a consequence discussion is done on how the analyzed effects are treated by published 0-dimensional simulation models with focus on later control and optimization application.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the transient Diesel engine operation

Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. This paper is concerned with their reduction, in particular for nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, by online optimization. It is based on a former work [1] in which alternative target quantities for engine control were proposed, namely in-cylinder oxygen concentrations before (O2,BC) and after combustion (O2,AC). A generic nonlinear optimization is applied to provide a systematic determination for the optimal trajectories of these oxygen target quantities during a transient torque maneuver. The proposed method was implemented on a dynamic engine test bed using a production passenger car Diesel engine for the objective function evaluation. Torque response could be maintained unchanged while NOx as well as PM emission peaks were reduced significantly.
Journal Article

Fast Oxygen Based Transient Diesel Engine Operation

Due to the advancements in passenger car Diesel engine design, the contribution of transient emission spikes has become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles, hence the interest of this work on dynamical engine operation, in particular on the improvement of NOX and PM emissions. This paper proposes to use a UEGO sensor (universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor) in the upstream of the turbine in combination with a Kalman filter to estimate the target quantities, namely in-cylinder oxygen concentration before and after combustion. This information is used to define the fuel injection as well as the values of the air path actuators. Test bench measurements with a production Diesel engine are presented, where the oxygen based approach is compared to the standard calibration during a fast load increase. It is shown that the torque response could be maintained while NOX as well as PM emission peaks were reduced significantly.
Technical Paper

Efficient Controllable Variable Flow (CVF) Cooling System for Modern Engines

Active control of engine-cooling systems over the full range of operating conditions including warm-up, peak-load, and part-load conditions is a fundamental requirement for today's advanced thermal management systems. The controllable Variable Flow (CVF) cooling system described herein combines efficient hydrodynamic performance with modulated output and flow control. Conventional hydrodynamic layouts for engine-cooling pumps are based on a uniform spin-free fluid flow into the impeller. This CVF system introduces an upstream pre-swirl to the flow thus changing the pump output, its magnitude is controlled in response to the varying heat rejection requirement thus providing efficient cooling on demand, for all operating conditions. The underlying principles, development test results, and the benefits for both gasoline and diesel engine cooling systems are presented and explained.
Technical Paper

Driver-Control Interaction of a Curve-Safe Braking Control for Motorcycles

Two-wheel vehicles are becoming continuously more important in Europe, but their spread is accompanied by an increase in security concerns due a number of reasons. These include stability problems during braking, and in particular curve braking, which is much more critical than in 4-wheel vehicles. These stability problems are strongly influenced by the behavior of the driver, in particular by his braking and steering activity. In this work we present a curve-safe ABS control, and analyze the role of the driver by a simulation model. It turns out that the demands on the driver in terms of stability control vary strongly with the braking behavior.
Technical Paper

Virtual Sensor Design of Particulate and Nitric Oxide Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

As a physical description of the emissions of a specific engine is seldom possible, we present here a method to design an online dynamic estimator for PM and NOx based on data. The design method is based on a systematic search of function candidates performed using genetic programming after data have been pre-treated in an adequate fashion. While data and a simple data pretreatment prove enough for NOx, some basic physical understanding is necessary to preset the method and obtain the required precision in the case of PM. The method has been applied for raw emissions of a production DI diesel engine and shows a remarkable prediction performance.