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2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0001
Harold J. Mertz, Priya Prasad, Dainius J. Dalmotas, Annette L. Irwin
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0011
David Gorman, Ebram Handy, Sikui Wang, Annette L. Irwin
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. A logistic regression model was developed indicating occupant weight, impact delta velocity and gender to be significant predictors of talus fracture (p<0.05).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0018
Harold J. Mertz, Annette L. Irwin, Priya Prasad
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0016
Annette L. Irwin, Greg Crawford, David Gorman, Sikui Wang, Harold J. Mertz
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0002
Annette L. Irwin, Harold J. Mertz
The biofidelity impact response corridors that were used to develop the Hybrid III family of dummies were established by scaling the various biofidelity corridors that were defined for the Hybrid III mid-size, adult male dummy. Scaling ratios for the responses of force, moment, acceleration, velocity, deflection, angle, stiffness and time were developed using dimensions and masses that were prescribed for the dummies. In addition, an elastic modulus ratio for bone was used to account for the differences between child and adult bone elastic properties. A similar method is being used by ISO/TC22/SC12/WG 5 to develop biofidelity guidelines for a family of side impact dummies based on scaling the biofidelity impact response corridors that are prescribed for WorldSID, a mid-size, adult male dummy.
2005-11-09
Technical Paper
2005-22-0019
Annette L. Irwin, Aleta Sutterfield, Timothy P. Hsu, Agnes Kim, Harold J. Mertz, Stephen W. Rouhana, Risa Scherer
The purpose of this paper is to compare the biofidelity rating schemes of ISO/TR9790 and the NHTSA Bio Rank System. This paper describes the development of new impact response corridors being proposed for ISO/TR9790 from the results of a recent series of side-impact sled tests. The response data were analyzed by methods consistent with ISO/TR9790, including normalization by impulse-momentum analysis and the elimination of subjects that sustained six or more rib fractures. Unlike ISO/TR9790, this paper proposes the elimination of the data from tests in which the timing and the sequence of loading of the individual impact plates were inconsistent compared to other tests conducted with the same impact wall configuration.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-22-0009
Harold J. Mertz, Annette L. Irwin, Priya Prasad
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, EuroSID2 and SID-IIs.
2002-11-11
Technical Paper
2002-22-0016
Annette L. Irwin, Harold J. Mertz, AM M. Elhagediab, Steve Moss
The Human Mechanical Simulation Subcommittee of the Human Biomechanics and Simulation Standards Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers took on the task of defining test procedures and associated response guidelines to be used to assess the level of biofidelity of side impact dummies that are being developed. This paper describes the results of their efforts. Guidelines are provided for assessing the levels of biofidelity of dummies that represent 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants, 3-, 6-, and 10-year-old children, and of dummies that represent a small female, midsize male and large male adults. These guidelines were developed by normalizing the side impact biofidelity guidelines that were established by the International Standards Organization for the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the midsize adult male.
1997-11-12
Technical Paper
973318
Harold J. Mertz, Priya Prasad, Annette L. Irwin
This paper describes the development of injury risk curves for measurements made with the CRABI and Hybrid III family of biofidelic child and adult dummies that are used to evaluate restraint systems in frontal and rear-end collision simulations. Injury tolerance data are normalized for size and strength considerations. These data are analyzed to give normalized injury risk curves for neck tension, neck extension moment, combined neck tension and extension moment, sternal compression, the rate of sternal compression, and the rate of abdominal compression for children and adults. Using these injury risk curves dummy response limits can be defined for prescribed injury risk levels. The injury risk levels associated with the various injury assessment reference values currently used with the CRABI and Hybrid III family of dummies are noted.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
941056
Harold J. Mertz, Annette L. Irwin
An objective, biomechanically based assessment is made of the risks of life-threatening brain injury of frontal crash test results. Published 15 ms HIC values for driver and right front passenger dummies of frontal barrier crash tests conducted by Transport Canada and NHTSA are analyzed using the brain injury risk curve of Prasad and Mertz. Ninety-four percent of the occupants involved in the 30 mph, frontal barrier compliance tests had risks of life-threatening brain injury less than 5 percent. Only 3 percent had risks greater than 16 percent which corresponds to 15 ms HIC > 1000. For belt restrained occupants without head contact with the interior, the risks of life-threatening brain injury were less than 2 percent. In contrast, for the more severe NCAP test condition, 27 percent of the drivers and 21 percent of the passengers had life-threatening brain injury risks greater than 16 percent.
1993-11-01
Technical Paper
933124
Annette L. Irwin, Timothy J. Walilko, John M. Cavanaugh, Yonghua Zhu, Albert I. King
Three-dimensional film analysis was used to study the response of the shoulder and thoracic skeleton of cadavers to lateral sled tests conducted at Wayne State University. The response of the shoulder structure was of particular interest, although, it is perhaps the most difficult skeletal structure to track in a side impact. Results of the three-dimensional film analysis are given for rigid impacts at 6.7 and 9.1 meters per second, and for padded impacts averaging 9 meters per second. Results from a two-dimensional film analysis are included for the impacted clavicle which could not be tracked by the three-dimensional film analysis. Displacements at various locations on the shoulder and thoracic skeleton were normalized to estimate the response of a fiftieth percentile male.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890604
Annette L. Irwin, Linda A. Pricopio, Harold J. Mertz, Joseph S. Balser, William M. Chkoreff
Side impact tests were conducted on the EUROSID and SID to assess their biofidelity compared to the response requirements of the international Standards Organization. The body regions evaluated were the head, neck, thorax, shoulder, abdomen, and pelvis. Test conditions and data normalization procedures are outlined in the report. Data plots are given which compare the impact response of each dummy to the ISO requirements. The EUROSID gave humanlike responses for most tests involving padded surface impacts, but its responses were not humanlike for rigid surface impacts. Overall, the EUROSID responses were more humanlike than the responses of the SID.
Viewing 1 to 12 of 12