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Technical Paper

Techniques for CO2 Emission Reduction over a WLTC. A Numerical Comparison of Increased Compression Ratio, Cooled EGR and Water Injection

2018-05-30
2018-37-0008
Abstract In this work, various techniques are numerically applied to a base engine - vehicle system to estimate their potential CO2 emission reduction. The reference thermal unit is a downsized turbocharged spark-ignition Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) engine, with a Compression Ratio (CR) of 10. In order to improve its fuel consumption, preserving the original full-load torque, various technologies are considered, including an increased CR, an external low-pressure cooled EGR, and a ported Water Injection (WI). The analyses are carried out by a 1D commercial software (GT-Power™), enhanced by refined user-models for the description of in-cylinder processes, namely turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and knock. The latter were validated with reference to the base engine architecture in previous activities.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Two Phenomenological Combustion Models Applied to Different SI Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2184
Abstract Nowadays, the development of a new engine is becoming more and more complex due to conflicting factors regarding technical, environmental and economic issues. The experimental activity has to comply with the above complexities, resulting in increasing cost and duration of engine development. For this reason, the simulation is becoming even more prominent, thanks to its lower financial burden, together with the need of an improved predictive capability. Among the other numerical approaches, the 1D models represent a proper compromise between reliability and computational effort, especially if the engine behavior has to be investigated over a number of operating conditions. The combustion model has a key role in this contest and the research of consistent approaches is still on going. In this paper, two well-assessed combustion models for Spark Ignition (SI) engines are described and compared: the eddy burn-up theory and the fractal approach.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the Potential of a Variable Compression Ratio Concept Applied to a Downsized Turbocharged VVA Spark Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0015
Abstract Nowadays different technical solutions have been proposed to improve the performance of internal combustion engines, especially in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). Its reduction of course contributes to comply with the CO2 emissions legislation for vehicle homologation. Concerning the spark ignition engines, the downsizing coupled to turbocharging demonstrated a proper effectiveness to improve the BSFC at part load. On the other hand, at high load, the above solution highly penalizes the fuel consumption mainly because of knock onset, that obliges to degrade the combustion phasing and/or enrich the air/fuel mixture. A promising technique to cope with the above drawbacks consists in the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) concept. An optimal Compression Ratio (CR) selection, in fact, allows for further improvements of the thermodynamic efficiency at part load, while at high load, it permits to mitigate knock propensity, resulting in more optimized combustions.
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