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Technical Paper

Novel Three-Cylinder Engine Solutions Offering Low Noise Vibration and Harshness for Range-Extender and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Abstract In recent years, automotive manufacturers have introduced an increasing array of in-line three cylinder engine solutions with the objective of providing efficient low CO2 emission power train solutions for small vehicles and in some cases to address down-sizing targets. At the same time, three cylinder engines have seen recent introduction in range-extender and hybrid electric vehicles such as the BMW i8. Unfortunately in-line three cylinder units present serious challenge to engineers in terms of noise, vibration and harshness and this often yields criticism from customer perceptions. The in-line three-cylinder arrangement however does offer an attractive packaging solution for vehicles and an effective method of reducing overall vehicle cost.
Journal Article

Low Volatility Fuel Cold Start Experience with a Stepped Piston UAV Engine to Address Single Fuel Objectives

Abstract This paper reports on the research and development challenges experienced from dynamometer testing of a spark ignition UAV engine operating on heavy fuel. The engine is a segregated scavenging two stroke engine with air charge delivery by means of integral stepped pistons overcoming durability issues of conventional crankcase scavenged engines. A key element of the experimental study builds upon performance development to address the need for repeatable cold start on low volatility fuel thereby eliminating gasoline from UAV theatres of deployment. Lubrication challenges normally associated with crankcase scavenged two stroke engines are avoided by the integrated re-circulatory lubrication system. The fuel explored in this study is kerosene JET A-1.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Possibilities for Automotive Range-Extender/Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Achieve Low CO2 and NVH Objectives

Powertrain system duplication for hybrid electric vehicles and range-extenders presents serious cost challenges. Cost increase can be mitigated by reducing the number of cylinders but this usually has a negative impact on noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the vehicle system. This paper considers a novel form of two-stroke cycle engine offering potential for low emissions, reduced production cost and high potential vehicle efficiency. The engine uses segregated pump charging via the use of stepped pistons offering potential for low emissions. Installation as a power plant for automotive hybrid electric vehicles or as a range-extender for electric vehicles could present a low mass solution addressing the drive for vehicle fleet CO2 reduction. Operation on the two-stroke cycle enables NVH advantages over comparable four-stroke cycle units, however the durability of conventional crankcase scavenged engines can present significant challenges.