Novel Three-Cylinder Engine Solutions Offering Low Noise Vibration and Harshness for Range-Extender and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Abstract In recent years, automotive manufacturers have introduced an increasing array of in-line three cylinder engine solutions with the objective of providing efficient low CO2 emission power train solutions for small vehicles and in some cases to address down-sizing targets. At the same time, three cylinder engines have seen recent introduction in range-extender and hybrid electric vehicles such as the BMW i8. Unfortunately in-line three cylinder units present serious challenge to engineers in terms of noise, vibration and harshness and this often yields criticism from customer perceptions. The in-line three-cylinder arrangement however does offer an attractive packaging solution for vehicles and an effective method of reducing overall vehicle cost.