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Technical Paper
Seyed Hadavi, Buland Dizayi, Hu Li, Alison Tomlin
Abstract To maximize CO2 reduction, refined straight used cooking oils were used as a fuel in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) in this research. The fuel is called C2G Ultra Biofuel (C2G: Convert to Green Ltd) and is a fully renewable fuel made as a diesel replacement from processed used cooking oil, used directly in diesel engines specifically modified for this purpose. This is part of a large demonstration project involving ten 44-tonne trucks using C2G Ultra Biofuel as a fuel to partially replace standard diesel fuels. A dual fuel tank containing both diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel and an on-board fuel blending system-Bioltec system was installed on each vehicle, which is able to heat the C2G Ultra Biofuel and automatically determine the required blending ratio of diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel according to fuel temperature and engine load. The engine was started with diesel and then switched to C2G Ultra Biofuel under appropriate conditions.
Journal Article
Hu Li, Jim Ebner, Peipei Ren, Laura Campbell, Buland Dizayi, Seyed Hadavi
In order to improve energy supply diversity and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, sustainable bio-fuels are strongly supported by EU and other governments in the world. While the feedstock of biofuels has caused a debate on the issue of sustainability, the used cooking oil (UCO) has become a preferred feedstock for biodiesel manufacturers. However, intensive energy consumption in the trans-esterification process during the UCO biodiesel production has significantly compromised the carbon reduction potentials and increased the cost of the UCO biodiesel. Moreover, the yield of biodiesel is only ∼90% and the remaining ∼10% feedstock is wasted as by-product glycerol. Direct use of UCO in diesel engines is a way to maximize its carbon saving potentials.
Technical Paper
Seyed Ali Hadavi, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews, Grzegorz przybyla, Buland Dizayi, Ahmad Khalfan
A cold start Euro 3 1.8 litre Diesel vehicle with an oxidation catalyst was used to investigate real world exhaust emissions over a driving cycle that included urban cold start congested traffic driving conditions. The aim was to identity those aspects of cold start real world driving responsible for higher emissions than in test cycles. Higher real world emissions may contribute to the problem of air quality in urban areas, which has not improved in quality in proportion to the reduced in vehicle exhaust emissions. Diesel, B50 and B100 fuel were compared to determine if real world driving effects were worse for B50 and B100 fuels due to their lower volatility and higher viscosity. The biofuel was WRME, derived from waste rape seed cooking oil. A multifunctional additive package was added to the biofuel at 800ppm to control fuel injector deposit formation. Gaseous emissions were monitored using an on-board heated Temet FTIR exhaust emission analyzer.
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