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Technical Paper


Alcohols are potential blending agents for use in compression ignition engines. This work experimentally and numerically investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining a 106 species n-dodecane skeletal mechanism and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers. The mixture mechanism was validated for various pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio using a homogeneous reactor model form CHEMKIN pro solver for neat base fuels (n-dodecane and butanol). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform was used for validation of n-dodecane/butanol blends (5, 10 and 20% by vol.) by using the commercially CFD solver CONVERGE.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Macroscopic as Well as Microscopic Spray Behavior of Multi-hole GDI Injector Under Engine Like Hot Injector Body Conditions

Fuel injection is the most important process in the GDI engine operation. The injection process only can help engine, either to work on homogeneous mode or stratified charge mode. In case of real engine operation, fuel injector gets heated up due to heat transfer from the hot burnt gases. This can significantly affect the spray characteristics and ultimately the engine performance. In the present work, engine like hot injector body conditions have been created in a constant volume spray chamber. Five different temperatures conditions (23 C, 100 C, 150 C, 200 C and 250 C) were created to study the effect of hot fuel conditions. Schlieren and Shadowgraph techniques were used to capture the vapor and liquid phase of Isooctane, whereas droplet size information was measured using the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). Results showed that with increase in fuel temperature, spray collapsed towards the injector axis due to flash boiling of the fuel.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study of Sloshing Noise in a Partially Filled Rectangular Tank

Abstract Liquid sloshing noise from an automotive fuel tank is becoming increasingly important during frequent accelerating/decelerating driving conditions. It is becoming more apparent due to significant decrease in other noise sources in a vehicle, particularly in hybrid vehicles. As a step toward understanding the dynamics of liquid sloshing and noise generation mechanism, an experimental study was performed in a partially filled rectangular tank. A systematic study was performed to understand the effects of critical parameters like fill level and acceleration/deceleration magnitude. Response parameters like dynamic pressure, dynamic force, dynamic acceleration and sound pressure levels along with high speed video images were recorded. The proposed experimental setup was able to demonstrate major events leading to sloshing noise generation. These events in the sloshing mechanism have been analysed from the dynamic sensor data and correlated with high speed video images.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine like Conditions on Macroscopic as well as Microscopic Spray Behavior of GDI Injector Using Isooctane and Alcohols

Abstract Use of bio fuels in a regular spark ignition engine is becoming common in several countries to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and overall generation of green house emissions. Alcohols such as methanol and ethanol are blended with gasoline when SI engines are considered. Advanced direct injection stratified charge engine technology has gained lot of interest due to its merits over conventional port fuel injection engine. Since the technology is significantly spray controlled, fuel injection and spray behavior under different thermodynamic conditions plays a very important role in successful engine operation. Present work was carried out to understand the spray behavior of isooctane and three alcohols under engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. Selected alcohols were ethanol, isobutanol and n-butanol. A six holes solenoid injector was used for this study.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Multiphysics Based Numerical Study to Predict Automotive Fuel Tank Sloshing Noise

Abstract With significant decrease in the background noise in present day automobiles, liquid slosh noise from an automotive fuel tank is considered as a major irritant during acceleration and deceleration. All major international OEMs and their suppliers try to reduce sloshing noise by various design modifications in the fuel tank. However, most major activities reported in open literature are primarily based on performing various CAE and experimental studies in isolation. However, noise generation and its propagation is a multiphysics phenomenon, where fluid mechanics due to liquid sloshing affects structural behaviour of the fuel tank and its mountings which in turn affects noise generation and propagation. In the present study a multiphysics approach to noise generation has been used to predict liquid sloshing noise from a rectangular tank.