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Technical Paper

Potential of Negative Valve Overlap for Part Load Efficiency Improvement in Gasoline Engines

Abstract This paper reports on the potential of negative valve overlap for improving the net indicated thermal efficiency of gasoline engines during part load. Three fixed fuel flow rates, resulting in indicated mean effective pressures of up to 6 bar, were investigated. At low load, negative valve overlap (NVO) significantly reduces the pumping loses during the gas exchange loop, achieving up to 7% improvement in indicated efficiency compared to the baseline. Similar efficiency improvements are achieved by positive valve overlap (PVO), with the disadvantage of worse combustion stability from a higher residual gas fraction. As the load increases, achieving the wide-open throttle limit, the benefits of NVO for reducing the pumping losses diminish, while the blow-down losses from early exhaust valve opening increase.
Technical Paper

Estimating the CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential of Various Technologies in European Trucks Using VECTO Simulator

Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
Journal Article

Analysis of NOx Emissions during Crank-Start and Cold Fast-Idle in a GDI Engine

Abstract The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing; they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cold-Start Emissions through Valve Timing in a GDI Engine

Abstract This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
Journal Article

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of Cold Crank-Start in a GDI Engine

Abstract The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process at 20°C are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy and combustion phasing of the current and previous cycles. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle, while the HC emissions stay relatively constant. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the amount of residual fuel. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the cranking process progresses. Combustion phasing retard significantly reduces the PM emission. The HC emissions, however, are relatively not sensitive to combustion phasing in the range of interest.
Journal Article

Effect of Operation Strategy on First Cycle CO, HC, and PM/PN Emissions in a GDI Engine

Abstract The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing, it does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.