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Technical Paper
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte, Nicolo Cavina, Giorgio Mancini, Vittorio Ravaglioli
Combustion phasing is crucial to achieve high performance and efficiency: for gasoline engines control variables such as Spark Advance (SA), Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR), Variable Valve Timing (VVT), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Tumble Flaps (TF) can influence the way heat is released. The optimal control setting can be chosen taking into account performance indicators, such as Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), pollutant emissions, or other indexes inherent to reliability issues, such as exhaust gas temperature, or knock intensity. Given the high number of actuations, the calibration of control parameters is becoming challenging.
Journal Article
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Enrico Corti, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare
The optimization of turbocharging systems for automotive applications has become crucial in order to increase engine performance and meet the requirements for pollutant emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Unfortunately, performing an optimal turbocharging system control is very difficult, mainly due to the fact that the flow through compressor and turbine is highly unsteady, while only steady flow maps are usually provided by the manufacturer. For these reasons, one of the most important quantities to be used onboard for optimal turbocharger system control is the rotational speed fluctuation, since it provides information both on turbocharger operating point and on the energy of the unsteady flow in the intake and exhaust circuits. This work presents a methodology that allows determining the instantaneous turbocharger rotational speed through a proper frequency processing of the signal coming from one accelerometer mounted on the turbocharger compressor.
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Enrico Corti, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare
Over the past years, policies affecting pollutant emissions control for Diesel engines have become more and more restrictive. In order to meet such requirements, innovative combustion control methods have currently become a key factor. Several studies demonstrate that the desired pollutant emission reduction can be achieved through a closed-loop combustion control based on in-cylinder pressure processing. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cylinder pressure sensors for on-board application have been recently developed, large scale deployment of such systems is currently hindered by unsatisfactory long term reliability and high costs. Whereas both the accuracy and the reliability of pressure measurement could be improved in future years, pressure sensors would still be a considerable part of the cost of the entire engine management system.
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare
Future regulations on pollutant emissions will impose a drastic cut on Diesel engines out-emissions. For this reason, the development of closed-loop combustion control algorithms has become a key factor in modern Diesel engine management systems. Diesel engines out-emissions can be reduced through a highly premixed combustion portion in low and medium load operating conditions. Since low-temperature premixed combustions are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions, the first aspect to be considered in newly developed Diesel engine control strategies is the control of the center of combustion. In order to achieve the target center of combustion, conventional combustion control algorithms correct the measured value varying main injection timing. A further reduction in engine-out emissions can be obtained applying an appropriate injection strategy.
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Matteo De Cesare, Vittorio Ravaglioli
Modern internal combustion engine control systems require on-board evaluation of a large number of quantities, in order to perform an efficient combustion control. The importance of optimal combustion control is mainly related to the requests for pollutant emissions reduction, but it is also crucial for noise, vibrations and harshness reduction. Engine system aging can cause significant differences between each cylinder combustion process and, consequently, an increase in vibrations and pollutant emissions. Another aspect worth mentioning is that newly developed low temperature combustion strategies (such as HCCI combustion) deliver the advantage of low engine-out NOx emissions, however, they show a high cylinder-to-cylinder variation. For these reasons, non uniformity in torque produced by the cylinders in an internal combustion engine is a very important parameter to be evaluated on board.
Technical Paper
Vittorio Ravaglioli, Fabrizio Ponti, Federico Stola
This paper presents the results of several studies, performed on different powertrain configurations, aimed at analyzing the correlations existing between torque and speed frequency components in an internal combustion engine. Engine speed fluctuations depend in fact on torque delivered by each cylinder, therefore it is easy to understand how these two quantities are directly connected. The presented methodology allows identifying a dynamic model, expressed as a transfer function that depends only on the structure of the engine-driveline system. The identified model can be used to obtain information about torque delivered by the engine and combustion positioning within the engine cycle starting from engine speed measurement. The speed signal is picked up directly from the sensor facing the toothed wheel that is already mounted on the engine for control purposes.
Technical Paper
Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Gabriele Serra, Fabrizio Ponti
In modern Diesel engine control strategies the guideline is to perform an efficient combustion control, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions. Innovative control algorithms for optimal combustion positioning require the on-board evaluation of a large number of quantities. In order to perform closed-loop combustion control, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is MFB50, i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel mass burned within an engine cycle is reached. Furthermore, MFB50 allows determining the kind of combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber, therefore knowing such quantity is crucial for newly developed low temperature combustion applications (such as HCCI, HCLI, distinguished by very low NOx emissions). The aim of this work is to develop a virtual combustion sensor, that provides MFB50 estimated value as a function of quantities that can be monitored real-time by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Gabriele Serra
Proper design of the combustion phase has always been crucial for Diesel engine control systems. Modern engine control strategies' growing complexity, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions, requires on-board estimation of a growing number of quantities. In order to feedback a control strategy for optimal combustion positioning, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is the angular position where 50% of fuel mass burned over an engine cycle is reached (MFB50), because it provides important information about combustion effectiveness (a key factor, for example, in HCCI combustion control). In modern Diesel engines, injection patterns are designed with many degrees of freedom, such as the position and the duration of each injection, rail pressure or EGR rate. In this work a model of the combustion process has been developed in order to evaluate the energy release within the cylinder as a function of the injection parameters.
Technical Paper
Davide Moro, Nicolò Cavina, Igor Trivić, Vittorio Ravaglioli
In order to increase overall energy efficiency of road vehicles, new systems that are able to recover vehicle's kinetic energy usually lost in dissipating process of frictional braking are being developed. This study was done to look at the effects of integrating Mechanical Flywheel-based Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) into an automotive vehicle. Possible system architectures, due to different connection point of the KERS into the vehicle driveline, were proposed and investigated. Interaction of the system main components (IC engine, vehicle Gearbox, KERS subsystems) was analyzed and explained. In particular, three plots are proposed to introduce a graphical representation that can help the project manager to understand the effect of different parameter values related to the main system components on the overall system behavior during energy transfer from the vehicle to KERS and back.
Journal Article
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Gabriele Serra, Federico Stola
Evaluation of MFB50 is very useful for combustion control, since it gives an evaluation of the combustion process effectiveness. Real-time monitoring its value enables to detect for example the kind of combustion that is taking place (useful for example for HCCI applications), or could provide important information to improve real-time combustion control. While it is possible to determine the position where the 50% of mass burned inside the cylinder is reached using an in-cylinder pressure sensor, this work proposes to obtain this information from the engine speed fluctuation measurement. In-cylinder pressure sensors in fact are still not so common for on-board applications, since their cost will constitute an important portion of the whole engine control system cost.
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