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Technical Paper

Optimal Injection Strategies to Compensate for Injector Aging in Common Rail Fuel Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1160
Aging effects such as coking or erosive damage that occur in fuel injection nozzles are known to deteriorate the engine performance. This paper proposes an optimization method to compensate for injector aging and to control the combustion behavior over engine lifetime by adapting the injection strategy. First, a control-oriented combustion model is presented, which takes the condition of the injection nozzle into account. In combination with a simulation model of the entire fuel injection system from a previous study, the model is capable of predicting the heat release rate at different working conditions. Measurements with a single-cylinder diesel engine were performed, using injectors with modified and aged nozzles, to validate the proposed combustion model and particularly to analyze the influence of injector aging. Using the simulation model, optimal injection strategies were obtained by applying a line search optimization scheme.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulative Approaches for the Determination of Discharge Coefficients for Inlet and Exhaust Valves and Ports in Internal Combustion Engines

2017-11-27
2017-01-5022
Abstract In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Orifice Design Effects on a Methane Fuelled Prechamber Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

2017-09-04
2017-24-0096
Abstract Due to its molecular structure, methane provides several advantages as fuel for internal combustion engines. To cope with nitrogen oxide emissions high levels of excess air are beneficial, which on the other hand deteriorates the flammability and combustion duration of the mixture. One approach to meet these challenges and ensure a stable combustion process are fuelled prechambers. The flow and combustion processes within these prechambers are highly influenced by the position, orientation, number and overall cross-sectional area of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main combustion chamber. In the present study, a water-cooled single cylinder test engine with a displacement volume of 0.5 l is equipped with a methane-fuelled prechamber. To evaluate influences of the aforementioned orifices several prechambers with variations of the orientation and number of nozzles are used under different operating conditions of engine speed and load.
Journal Article

Heat Release Calculation of Internal Combustion Engines by Analyzing the Flame Radiation with Crankshaft Angle Resolution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0787
Abstract Improving efficiency and reducing emissions are the principal challenges in developing new generations of internal combustion engines. Different strategies such as downsizing or sophisticated after-treatment of exhaust gases are pursued. Another approach aims at optimizing the parameterization of the engine. Correct adjustments of ignition timings, waste gate position and other factors have significant influence on the combustion process. A multitude of application data is generated during the development process to predefine appropriate settings for most situations. Improvements in regards to the application effort and the quality of the settings can be achieved by measuring the combustion process and optimizing the parametrization in a closed loop. However, cylinder pressure sensors that are used during the development process are too expensive for series applications.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Test Methodology for Combustion Engine Testing: Methods for Increasing Measurement Quality and Validity at the Engine Test Bench

2017-03-28
2017-01-0604
Abstract Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation is among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be steadily reduced. For these reasons, the high demands in terms of quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are continuously rising. This paper will present a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion-relevant component setups. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
Journal Article

Development of a High Turbulence, Low Particle Number, High Injection Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection Combustion System

2016-11-16
2016-01-9046
Abstract In the present work the benefit of a 50 MPa gasoline direct injection system (GDI) in terms of particle number (PN) emissions as well as fuel consumption is shown on a 0.5 l single cylinder research engine in different engine operating conditions. The investigations show a strong effect of injection timing on combustion duration. As fast combustion can be helpful to reduce fuel consumption, this effect should be investigated more in detail. Subsequent analysis with the method of particle image velocimetry (PIV) at the optical configuration of this engine and three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations reveal the influence of injection timing on large scale charge motion (tumble) and the level of turbulent kinetic energy. Especially with delayed injection timing, high combustion velocities can be achieved. At current series injection pressures, the particle number emissions increase at late injection timing.
Technical Paper

A New Phenomenological Approach to Simulate the Injection Rate of a Diesel Solenoid Valve Injector

2016-10-17
2016-01-2232
Abstract This paper presents a phenomenological and semi-empirical simulation model to predict the injection rate of a diesel solenoid valve injector based on a few injection quantity measurements and indications (EMI). The approximate injection rate will be used as the input data for a subsequent model, which simulates the rate of heat release (ROHR). The injection rate model encompasses algebraic relations and differential equations deviating from the equations of motion and conservation, which describes the characteristic processes in the injector by using modular submodules. The process and its assumptions are explained step by step for each submodule. In addition, the injection rate predictions are presented and compared with experimental results arising from the selected reference solenoid valve injector.
Technical Paper

Identification of Aging Effects in Common Rail Diesel Injectors Using Geometric Classifiers and Neural Networks

2016-04-05
2016-01-0813
Abstract Aging effects such as coking or cavitation in the nozzle of common rail (CR) diesel injectors deteriorate combustion performance. This is of particular relevance when it comes to complying with emission legislation and demonstrates the need for detecting and compensating aging effects during operation. The first objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of worn nozzles on the injection rate. Therefore, measurements of commercial solenoid common rail diesel injectors with different nozzles are carried out using an injection rate analyzer of the Bosch type. Furthermore, a fault model for typical aging effects in the nozzle of the injector is presented together with two methods to detect and identify these effects. Both methods are based on a multi-domain simulation model of the injector. The needle lift, the control piston lift and the pressure in the lower feed line are used for the fault diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Extensive Investigation of a Common Rail Diesel Injector Regarding Injection Characteristics and the Resulting Influences on the Dual Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

2016-04-05
2016-01-0780
Abstract Natural gas and especially biogas combustion can be seen as one of the key technologies towards climate-neutral energy supply. With its extensive availability, biogas is amongst the most important renewable energy sources in the present energy mix. Today, the use of gaseous fuels is widely established, for example in cogeneration units for combined heat and power generation. In contrast to conventional spark plug ignition, the combustion can also be initialized by a pilot injection. In order to further increase engine efficiency, this article describes the process for a targeted optimization of the pilot fuel injection. One of the crucial points for a more efficient dual fuel combustion process, is to optimize the amount of pilot injection in order to increase overall engine efficiency, and therefore decrease fuel consumption. In this connection, the injection system plays a key role.
Technical Paper

Measuring and Simulating Friction between Piston Pin and Connecting Rod on a Tribometer Test Bench to Define Locally Resolved Friction Coefficients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0490
Abstract Measuring and simulating the contact between piston pin and connecting rod (conrod) is very complex. The pin can rotate freely in the conrod as well as in the piston. Further, there is no defined oil supply with a constant pressure as it is for example in main bearings. A tribometer test bench was adapted to measure friction between pin and conrod. The system is loaded with a constant force and oil supply is realized as defined deficient lubrication. During one part of the schedule, the rotational speed is defined as ramp to measure friction coefficient over speed, in another part the speed was pivoted from positive to negative speed within less than 500 milliseconds. With this measurement method, the different friction coefficients between radial slider and pivot bearings could be quantified. The measurements were conducted for four different pin-coatings.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Mixture Formation for Combined Injection Strategies in High-Performance SI-Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2476
Alongside with the severe restrictions according to technical regulations of the corresponding racing series (air and/or fuel mass flow), the optimization of the mixture formation in SI-race engines is one of the most demanding challenges with respect to engine performance. Bearing in mind its impact on the ignition behavior and the following combustion, the physical processes during mixture formation play a vital role not only in respect of the engine's efficiency, fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions but also on engine performance. Furthermore, abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knock may be enhanced by insufficient mixture formation. This can presumably be explained by the strong influence of the spatial distribution of the air/fuel-ratio on the inflammability of the mixture as well as the local velocity of the turbulent flame front.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gas Flow through the Piston Ring Pack of an Internal Combustion Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1302
Abstract Developing piston assemblies for internal combustion engines faces the conflicting priorities of blow-by, friction, oil consumption and wear. Solving this conflict consists in finding a minimum for all these parameters. This optimization can only be successful if all the effects involved are understood properly. In this paper only blow-by and its associated flow paths for a diesel engine in part load operating mode are part of a detailed numerical investigation. A comparison of the possibilities to do a CFD analysis of this problem should show why the way of modeling described here has been picked. Further, the determination of the complex geometry, which results in a challenging set of calculations, is described. Besides the constraints for temperature and pressure, a meshing method for the creation of a dynamic mesh that is capable of describing the movement of all three rings of the piston ring pack simultaneously is also explained.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number Determination by Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analysis in a New Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0798
Abstract A new constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) apparatus is presented that calculates the cetane number (CN) of fuels from their ignition delay by means of a primary reference fuel calibration. It offers the benefits of low fuel consumption, suitability for non-lubricating substances, accurate and fast measurements and a calibration by primary reference fuels (PRF). The injection system is derived from a modern common-rail passenger car engine. The apparatus is capable of fuel injection pressures up to 1200 bar and requires only 40 ml of the test fuel. The constant volume combustion chamber can be heated up to 1000 K and pressurized up to 50 bar. Sample selection is fully automated for independent operation and low levels of operator involvement. Capillary tubes employed in the sampling system can be heated to allow the measurement of highly viscous fuels.
Journal Article

Investigation of a Methane Scavenged Prechamber for Increased Efficiency of a Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0866
Abstract Scarce resources of fossil fuels and increasingly stringent exhaust emission legislation push towards a stronger focus to alternative fuels. Natural gas is considered a promising solution for small engines and passenger cars due to its high availability and low carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, natural gas indicates great potential of increased engine efficiency at lean-burn operation. However, the ignition of these lean air/fuel mixtures leads to new challenges, which can be met by fuel scavenged prechambers. At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen an air cooled natural gas engine with a single cylinder displacement volume of 0.5 L is equipped with a methane scavenged prechamber for investigations of the combustion process under real engine conditions. The main combustion chamber is supplied with a lean premixed air/fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Detection of Stationary Operating States of Internal Combustion Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1643
Abstract Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical models. Adding advanced components such as variable valve trains or direct injection systems to the model increases the degrees of freedom resulting in a high number of measurements for validation. Steadily rising costs for development, time and staff make it crucial for industry to improve the quality of measurements with advanced analysis techniques. Often, such models consider the simulated system as stationary, implying that system variables no longer change with time. This paper presents an internal combustion engine measurement system utilizing algorithms for the real-time evaluation of the state of the engine or its components. Several approaches have been reviewed and tested regarding their applicability. The most straightforward algorithms compare the gradient of a sensor signal to a pre-defined threshold.
Technical Paper

Piston Design Optimization for a Two-Cylinder Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine - 3D-CFD-Simulation and Test Bed Measurements

2014-04-01
2014-01-1326
Abstract The development of today's drivetrains focusses on the reduction of vehicles' CO2-emissions. Therefore, a drivetrain for urban and commuter traffic is under development at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines. The concept is based on a lean-burn air cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine, which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. On the one hand, lean-burn combustion leads to low nitrogen oxides emissions and high thermal efficiency. On the other hand, there are several challenges concerning inflammability, combustion stability and combustion duration. An approach to optimize the combustion process is the design of the piston bowl. The paper presents the engine concept at first. Afterwards, a description of design parameters for pistons of natural gas engines and a technical overview of piston bowls is given. Subsequent to the analysis of the different piston bowls, a new design approach is presented.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging of a Two-cylinder Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine with Uneven Firing Order

2014-04-01
2014-01-1652
Abstract At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen a drivetrain for urban and commuter traffic is under development. The concept is based on a lean-burn air-cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. The engine is initially mechanically charged which results in an engine speed dependent torque. Turbocharging the natural gas fuelled engine derives increased engine torque especially at low engine speeds and exploits the potential of better knock resistance of natural gas compared to gasoline fuel. The paper presents a turbocharging concept for the two-cylinder engine at first. The firing order of 180/540°CA due to the crank shaft design and the lean-burn combustion are challenging restrictions to cope with. The consequences of the uneven firing order are investigated using 1D-simulation and the matching of the exhaust gas turbocharger is shown.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hydraulic Hybrid System for Urban Traffic

2013-04-08
2013-01-1479
The development of today's powertrains focuses on the reduction of CO₂ emissions. Therefore several new technologies for internal combustion engines have been established. A further tendency is the successive electrification of powertrains in hybrid vehicles. However, these trends lead to increasing system costs which are a very important aspect at the market segment of compact cars. At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technical University of Munich a drivetrain concept for urban and commuter traffic is under development. It is based on a lean-burn air-cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. The paper contains detailed information about the engine as well as the hybrid vehicle powertrain in parallel structure. Particular characteristics and innovations of the hydraulic hybrid system compared to systems known so far are shown.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model-Based HCCI Control Strategy for an Engine with a Fully Variable Valve Train

2013-04-08
2013-01-1667
This paper discusses research activities at the Technische Universität München on the HCCI combustion process, focusing on the development of a model-based control concept with pressure indication. As a first step sensitivity analyses have been carried out to investigate influences of different injection strategies on the combustion and emission characteristics. An optimal injection strategy has been determined and reasonable control variables and ranges corresponding to this strategy were defined. Comprehensive steady-state measurements have been conducted to detect the engine characteristics. In order to limit the experimental effort, principles of DoE (Design of Experiments) have been used to define a methodological approach in the planning of the measurements. Afterwards a multiple-input multiple-output engine model including boundary models for input settings has been designed out of the measurement results.
Technical Paper

Development of Dynamic Models for an HCCI Engine with Fully Variable Valve-Train

2013-04-08
2013-01-1656
For the next stage of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine researches, the development of an engine controller, taking account of dynamics is required. The objective of this paper is to develop dynamic multi input and multi output HCCI engine models and a controller to deal with variable valve lift, variable valve phase, and fuel injection. First, a physical continuous model has been developed. This model mainly consists of air flow models, an ignition model, and a combustion and mechanical model of the engine. The flow models use a receiver model on volumetric elements such as an intake manifold and a valve flow model on throttling elements such as intake valves. Livengood-wu integration of Arrhenius function is used to predict ignition timing. The combustion duration is expressed as a function of ignition timings.
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