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Viewing 1 to 24 of 24
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0061
James P. Szybist, Scott W. Wagnon, Derek Splitter, William J. Pitz, Marco Mehl
Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0688
Derek Splitter, Brian Kaul, James Szybist, Gurneesh Jatana
Abstract This work explores the dependence of fuel ignition delay on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on bulk gas thermodynamic state, where the effects of kinetically controlled bulk gas pre-spark heat release (PSHR) are correlated to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, residual gas and low temperature PSHR chemistry effects and observations are explored, which are found to be indicative of bulk gas conditions required for strong SPI events. Analyzed events range from non-knocking SPI to knocking SPI and even detonation SPI events in excess of 325 bar peak cylinder pressure. The work illustrates that singular SPI event count and magnitude are found to be proportional to PSHR of the bulk gas mixture and residual gas fraction. Cycle-to-cycle variability in trapped residual mass and temperature are found to impose variability in singular SPI event count and magnitude.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0715
James P. Szybist, Derek Splitter
Abstract Fuel-specific differences in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution tolerance are studied in a modern, direct-injection single-cylinder research engine. A total of 6 model fuel blends are examined at a constant research octane number (RON) of 95 using n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol. Laminar flame speeds for these mixtures, which are calculated using two different methods (an energy fraction mixing rule and a detailed kinetic simulation), span a range of about 6 cm/s. A nominal load of 350 kPa IMEPg at 2000 rpm is maintained with constant fueling and varying CA50 from 8-20 CAD aTDCf. EGR is increased until a COV of IMEP of 5% is reached. The results illustrate that flame speed affects EGR dilution tolerance; fuels with increased flame speeds have increased EGR tolerance. Specifically, flame speed correlates most closely to the initial flame kernel growth, measured as the time of ignition to 5% mass fraction burned.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0741
Derek Splitter, Barry Burrows, Sam Lewis
Abstract The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and speciated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1325
Derek Splitter, Martin Wissink, Dan DelVescovo, Rolf D. Reitz
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1231
Derek Splitter, James Szybist
The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with λ=1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at λ=1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1271
Vickey B. Kalaskar, Derek A. Splitter, James P. Szybist
In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1188
James P. Szybist, Richard R. Steeper, Derek Splitter, Vickey B. Kalaskar, Josh Pihl, Charles Daw
Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0279
Derek Splitter, Martin Wissink, Dan DelVescovo, Rolf D. Reitz
The present experimental study explored methods to obtain the maximum practical cycle efficiency with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI). The study used both zero-dimensional computational cycle simulations and engine experiments. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder heavy-duty research diesel engine adapted for dual fuel operation, with and without piston oil gallery cooling. In previous studies, RCCI combustion with in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injections of higher reactivity fuels was demonstrated to permit near-zero levels of NOx and PM emissions in-cylinder, while simultaneously realizing gross indicated thermal efficiencies in excess of 56%. The present study considered RCCI operation at a fixed load condition of 6.5 bar IMEP an engine speed of 1,300 [r/min]. The experiments used a piston with a flat profile with 18.7:1 compression ratio.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1652
Martin Wissink, Zhi Wang, Derek Splitter, Arsham Shahlari, Rolf D. Reitz
This study uses Fourier analysis to investigate the relationship between the heat release event and the frequency composition of pressure oscillations in a variety of combustion modes. While kinetically-controlled combustion strategies such as HCCI and RCCI offer advantages over CDC in terms of efficiency and NOX emissions, their operational range is limited by audible knock and the possibility of engine damage stemming from high pressure rise rates and oscillations. Several criteria such as peak pressure rise rate, ringing intensity, and various knock indices have been developed to quantify these effects, but they fail to capture all of the dynamics required to form direct comparisons between different engines or combustion strategies. Experiments were performed with RCCI, HCCI, and CDC on a 2.44 L heavy-duty engine at 1300 RPM, generating a significant diversity of heat release profiles.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1661
Christopher Kolodziej, Martin Wissink, Derek Splitter, Reed Hanson, Rolf D. Reitz, Jesus Benajes
Many concepts of premixed diesel combustion at reduced temperatures have been investigated over the last decade as a means to simultaneously decrease engine-out particle and oxide of nitrogen (NO ) emissions. To overcome the trade-off between simultaneously low particle and NO emissions versus high "diesel-like" combustion efficiency, a new dual-fuel technique called Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been researched. In the present study, particle size distributions were measured from RCCI for four gasoline:diesel compositions from 65%:35% to 84%:16%, respectively. Previously, fuel blending (reactivity control) had been carried out by a port fuel injection of the higher volatility fuel and a direct in-cylinder injection of the lower volatility fuel. With a recent mechanical upgrade, it was possible to perform injections of both fuels directly into the combustion chamber.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0380
Reed Hanson, Scott Curran, Robert Wagner, Sage Kokjohn, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that produces low NO and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom-machined pistons designed for RCCI operation.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0375
Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz, Derek Splitter, Mark Musculus
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCI) strategies offer the potential for simultaneously low NOx and soot emissions with diesel-like efficiency. However, these strategies are generally confined to low loads due to inadequate control of combustion phasing and heat-release rate. One PCI strategy, dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI), has been developed to control combustion phasing and rate of heat release. The RCCI concept uses in-cylinder blending of two fuels with different auto-ignition characteristics to achieve controlled high-efficiency clean combustion. This study explores fuel reactivity stratification as a method to control the rate of heat release for PCI combustion. To introduce fuel reactivity stratification, the research engine is equipped with two fuel systems. A low-pressure (100 bar) gasoline direct injector (GDI) delivers iso-octane, and a higher-pressure (600 bar) common-rail diesel direct-injector delivers n-heptane.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0383
Derek Splitter, Martin Wissink, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
The present experimental study explores the effects of compression ratio and piston design in a heavy-duty diesel engine operated with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. In previous studies, RCCI combustion with in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injections of higher reactivity fuels was demonstrated to permit near-zero levels of NOX and PM emissions in-cylinder, while simultaneously realizing high thermal efficiencies. The present study consists of RCCI experiments at loads from 4 to 17 bar indicated mean effective pressure at engine speeds of 1,300 and 1,700 [rev/min]. The experiments used a modified piston to examine the effect of piston crevice volume, squish geometry, and compression ratio on performance and efficiency.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0047
Derek Splitter, Reed Hanson, Sage Kokjohn, Martin Wissink, Rolf D. Reitz
Dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine experiments were conducted with port fuel injection of isooctane and direct injection of n-heptane. The experiments were conducted at a nominal load of 4.75 bar IMEPg, with low isooctane equivalence ratios. Two sets of experiments explored the effects of direct injection timing with single and double injections, and multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to explore mixture preparation and timing effects. The findings were that if fuel-liner impingement is to be avoided, double injections provide a 40% reduction in CO and HC emissions, resulting in a 1% increase in thermal efficiency. The second engine experiment showed that there is a linear relationship between reactivity (PRF number) and intake temperature. It was also found that if the premixed fuel fraction is above a certain limit, the high-temperature heat release (HTHR) can be manipulated by changing the global PRF number of the in-cylinder fuel blend.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0363
Derek Splitter, Reed Hanson, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) to realize highly-efficient combustion with near zero levels of NOx and PM. In-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injection of higher reactivity fuels was used to control combustion phasing and duration. In addition to injection and operating parameters, the study explored the effect of fuel properties by considering both gasoline-diesel dual-fuel operation, ethanol (E85)-diesel dual fuel operation, and a single fuel gasoline-gasoline+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide cetane improver). Remarkably, high gross indicated thermal efficiencies were achieved, reaching 59%, 56%, and 57% for E85-diesel, gasoline-diesel, and gasoline-gasoline+DTBP respectively.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0361
Reed Hanson, Sage Kokjohn, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition combustion (RCCI) has been demonstrated at mid to high loads [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] as a method to operate an internal combustion engine that produces low NOx and low PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI engine operation at loads of 2 and 4.5 bar gross IMEP at engine speeds between 800 and 1700 rev/min. This load range was selected to cover the range from the previous work of 6 bar gIMEP down to an off-idle load at 2 bar. The fueling strategy for the low load investigation consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of either diesel fuel or gasoline doped with 3.5% by volume 2-EHN (2-ethylhexyl nitrate). At these loads, engine operating conditions such as inlet air temperature, port fuel percentage, and engine speed were varied to investigate their effect on combustion.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0357
Sage Kokjohn, Reed Hanson, Derek Splitter, John Kaddatz, Rolf D. Reitz
Single-cylinder engine experiments were used to investigate a fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept in both light- and heavy-duty engines and comparisons were made between the two engine classes. It was found that with only small changes in the injection parameters, the combustion characteristics of the heavy-duty engine could be adequately reproduced in the light-duty engine. Comparisons of the emissions and performance showed that both engines can simultaneously achieve NOx below 0.05 g/kW-hr, soot below 0.01 g/kW-hr, ringing intensity below 4 MW/m2, and gross indicated efficiencies above 50 per cent. However, it was found that the peak gross indicated efficiency of the baseline light-duty engine was approximately 7 per cent lower than the heavy-duty engine. The energy balances of the two engines were compared and it was found that the largest factor contributing to the lower efficiency of the light-duty engine was increased heat transfer losses.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2167
Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz, Reed Hanson
Heavy-duty engine experiments were conducted to explore reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion through addition of the cetane improver di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) to pump gasoline. Unlike previous diesel/gasoline dual-fuel operation of RCCI combustion, the present study investigates the feasibility of using a single fuel stock (gasoline) as the basis for both high reactivity and low reactivity fuels. The strategy consisted of port fuel injection of gasoline and direct injection of the same gasoline doped with a small volume percent addition of DTBP. With 1.75% DTBP by volume added to only the direct-injected fuel (which accounts for approximately 0.2% of the total fueling) it was found that the additized gasoline behaved similarly to diesel fuel, allowing for efficient RCCI combustion. The single fuel results with DTBP were compared to previous high-thermal efficiency, low-emissions results with port injection of gasoline and direct injections of diesel.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0864
Reed M. Hanson, Sage L. Kokjohn, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at a medium engine load of 9 bar net IMEP and was also found to be effective to prevent excessive rates of pressure rise. Parameters used in the experiments were guided from the KIVA-CHEMKIN code with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism including injection timings, fuel percentages, and intake valve closing (IVC) timings for dual-fuel PCCI combustion. The engine experiments were conducted with a conventional common rail injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) and demonstrated control and versatility of dual-fuel PCCI combustion with the proper fuel blend, SOI and IVC timings.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0345
Derek Splitter, Sage Kokjohn, Keith Rein, Reed Hanson, Scott Sanders, Rolf D. Reitz
The ignition process of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion was investigated using engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. The experiments were performed using a modified all metal heavy-duty, compression-ignition engine. The engine was fueled using commercially available gasoline (PON 91.6) and ULSD diesel delivered through separate port and direct injection systems, respectively. Experiments were conducted at a steady state-engine load of 4.5 bar IMEP and speed of 1300 rev/min. In-cylinder optical measurements focused on understanding the fuel decomposition and fuel reactivity stratification provided through the charge preparation. The measurement technique utilized point location optical access through a modified cylinder head with two access points in the firedeck. Optical measurements of natural thermal emission were performed with an FTIR operating in the 2-4.5 μm spectral region.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2647
Sage L. Kokjohn, Reed M. Hanson, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1442
Reed Hanson, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
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