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Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft

Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft was developed to explain what the electric aircraft stands for by offering an objective view of what can be expected from the giant strides in innovative architectures and technologies enabling aircraft electrification. Through tangible case studies, a deep insight is provided into this paradigm shift cutting across various aircraft segments – from General Aviation to Large Aircraft. Addressing design constraints and timelines foreseen to reach acceptable performance and maturity levels, Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft puts forward a general view of the progress made to date and what to expect in the years to come. Drawing from the expertise of four industry veterans, Pascal Thalin (editor), Ravi Rajamani, Jean-Charles Mare and Sven Taubert (contributors), it addresses futuristic approaches but does not depart too far from the operational down-to-earth realities of everyday business.

Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation - The History, The Business and The Technology

Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation: The History, The Business and The Technology describes the history and practice of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) systems by showcasing ten technical papers from the archives of SAE International, stretching from the dawn of the jet age down to the present times. By scientifically understanding how different components degrade during operations, it is possible to schedule inspections, repairs, and overhauls at appropriate intervals so that any incipient failure can be detected well in advance. Today, this includes more sensors and analytics so that periodic inspections are replaced by automated "continuous" inspections, and analytical methods that detect imminent failures and predict degradation issues more economically and efficiently. Similar concepts are also being developed for delivering prognostics functions, such as tracking of remaining useful life (RUL) of life-limited parts in aircraft engines.

Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines

The propulsion system is arguably the most critical part of the aircraft; it certainly is the single most expensive component of the vehicle. Ensuring that engines operate reliably without major maintenance issues is an important goal for all operators, military or commercial. Engine health management (EHM) is a critical piece of this puzzle and has been a part of the engine maintenance for more than five decades. In fact, systematic condition monitoring was introduced for engines before it was applied to other systems on the aircraft. Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines is a collection of technical papers from the archives of SAE International, which introduces the reader to a brief history of EHM, presents some examples of EHM functions, and outlines important future trends.

Electric Flight Technology: The Unfolding of a New Future

The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion in aerospace. Also, cars, buses, and trucks are incorporating electric or hybrid-electric propulsion systems, reducing the pressure on hydrocarbons and lowering the costs of electrical components. The economies of scale necessitated by the automotive industry will help contain costs in the aviation sector as well. The use of electric propulsion in airplanes is not a new phenomenon. However, it is only recently that it has taken off in a concrete manner with a viable commercial future. The Electric Flight Technology: Unfolding of a New Future reviews the history of this field, discusses the key underlying technologies, and describes how the future for these technologies will likely unfold, distinguishing between all-electric (AE) and hybrid-electric (HE) architectures. Written by Dr.
Technical Paper

Determining Remaining Useful Life for Li-ion Batteries

A high fidelity system for estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) for Li-ion batteries for aerospace applications is presented. The system employs particle filtering coupled with outlier detection to predict RUL. Calculations of RUL are based on autonomous measurements of the battery state-of-health by onboard electronics. Predictions for RUL are fed into a maintenance advisor which allows operators to more effectively plan battery removal. The RUL algorithm has been exercised under stressful conditions to assert robustness.
Technical Paper

Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a “real-world” example related to designing a landing gear system.
Technical Paper

Certification of Engine Health Management Systems: Guidelines for Selecting Software Assurance Levels

The use of Engine Health Management (EHM) systems has been growing steadily in both the civilian and the military aerospace sectors. Barring a few notable exceptions (such as certain temperature and thrust margin monitoring) regulatory authorities around the world have not required these systems to be certified in any way. This is changing rapidly. New airframes and engines are increasingly being designed with the assumption that EHM will be an integral part of the way customers will operate these assets. This leads to a need for better guidelines on how such systems should be certified. The SAE E-32 committee on Propulsion System Health Monitoring is leading an industry-wide effort to develop a set of guidelines for certifying EHM systems.