Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 8 of 8
Technical Paper

Development of Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop System Implemented with Reduced-Order Electrochemistry Li-Ion Battery Models

Abstract Aggressive battery usage profiles in electrified vehicle applications require extensive efforts in developing battery management strategy and system design determination to guarantee safe operation under every real-world driving conditions. Experiment based approaches have been widely used for battery system development, but higher costs and longer testing time restrain the number of test cases in the product development process. Battery experiments tend to be conservative to avoid inherent risks of battery failure modes under aggressive battery operation close to the capability limits. Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) is an alternative way to overcome the limitations of experiment-based approaches. Battery models in the HIL should provide real-time computation capability and high (at least acceptable) prediction accuracy. Equivalent circuit model (ECM) based HILs have been used owing to their relatively good balance between computational time and prediction accuracy.
Journal Article

Frequency Domain Power Distribution Strategy for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Electrification and hybridization have great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing visual signature or soot emissions in military vehicles. Specific challenges related to military applications include severe duty cycles, large and uncertain energy flows through the system and high thermal loads. A novel supervisory control strategy is proposed to simultaneously mitigate severe engine transients and to reduce high electric current in the battery without oversizing the battery. The described objectives are accomplished by splitting the propulsion power demand through filtering in the frequency domain. The engine covers only low frequency power demand profile while the battery covers high frequency components. In the proposed strategy, the separation filter is systematically designed to identify different frequency components with the consideration of fuel consumption, aggressive engine transients, and battery electric loads.
Technical Paper

Real-World Driving Pattern Recognition for Adaptive HEV Supervisory Control: Based on Representative Driving Cycles in Midwestern US

Impact of driving patterns on fuel economy is significant in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Driving patterns affect propulsion and braking power requirement of vehicles, and they play an essential role in HEV design and control optimization. Driving pattern conscious adaptive strategy can lead to further fuel economy improvement under real-world driving. This paper proposes a real-time driving pattern recognition algorithm for supervisory control under real-world conditions. The proposed algorithm uses reference real-world driving patterns parameterized from a set of representative driving cycles. The reference cycle set consists of five synthetic representative cycles following the real-world driving distance distribution in the US Midwestern region. Then, statistical approaches are used to develop pattern recognition algorithm. Driving patterns are characterized with four parameters evaluated from the driving cycle velocity profiles.
Journal Article

Impact of Model-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Control Strategy on Battery Sizing and Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty HEVs

Electrification and hybridization show great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing emission in heavy-duty vehicles. However, high battery cost is unavoidable due to the requirement for large batteries capable of providing high electric power for propulsion. The battery size and cost can be reduced with advanced battery control strategies ensuring safe and robust operation covering infrequent extreme conditions. In this paper, the impact of such a battery control strategy on battery sizing and fuel economy is investigated under various military and heavy-duty driving cycles. The control strategy uses estimated Li-ion concentration information in the electrodes to prevent battery over-charging and over-discharging under aggressive driving conditions. Excessive battery operation is moderated by adjusting allowable battery power limits through the feedback of electrode-averaged Li-ion concentration estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF).
Journal Article

Characterizing One-day Missions of PHEVs Based on Representative Synthetic Driving Cycles

This paper investigates series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) behavior during one-day with synthesized representative one-day missions. The amounts of electric energy and fuel consumption are predicted to assess the PHEV impact on the grid with respect to the driving distance and different charging scenarios: (1) charging overnight, (2) charging whenever possible. The representative cycles are synthesized using the extracted information from the real-world driving data in Southeast Michigan gathered through the Field Operational Tests (FOT) conducted by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The real-world driving data include 4,409 trips covering 830 independent days and temporal distributions of departure and arrival times. The sample size is large enough to represent real-world driving.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Advanced Engines Using Discretized Nonlinear Control Oriented Models

This paper proposes a methodology to develop a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) of a dual-independent variable valve timing (di-VVT) engine using discretized nonlinear engine models. In multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems, model based control methodologies are critical for realizing the full potential of complex hardware. Fast and accurate control oriented models (COM) that capture combustion physics, actuator and system dynamics are prerequisites for developing NMPC. We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to generate the non-linear combustion model, where the high-fidelity engine cycle simulation is utilized to characterize effects of turbulence, air-to-fuel ratio, residual fraction, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The input-to-output relations are subsequently captured with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Manifold and actuator dynamics are discretized to reduce computation efforts.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Behavior During Real-World 24-Hour Missions

This paper proposes a simulation based methodology to assess plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) behavior over 24-hour periods. Several representative 24-hour missions comprise naturalistic cycle data and information about vehicle resting time. The data were acquired during Filed Operational Tests (FOT) of a fleet of passenger vehicles carried out by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) for safety research. Then, PHEV behavior is investigated using a simulation with two different charging scenarios: (1) Charging overnight; (2) Charging whenever possible. Charging/discharging patterns of the battery as well as trends of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes at each scenario were assessed. Series PHEV simulation is generated using Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and in-house Matlab codes.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.