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Technical Paper

Development of Production Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Using System Simulation: Technology Leadership Brief

In an earlier paper, the authors described how Model-Based System Engineering could be utilized to provide a virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation capability, which creates a framework for the development of virtual ECU software by providing a platform upon which embedded control algorithms may be developed, tested, updated, and validated. The development of virtual ECU software is increasingly valuable in automotive control system engineering because vehicle systems are becoming more complex and tightly integrated, which requires that interactions between subsystems be evaluated during the design process. Variational analysis and robustness studies are also important and become more difficult to perform with real hardware as system complexity increases. The methodology described in this paper permits algorithm development to be performed prior to the availability of vehicle and control system hardware by providing what is essentially a virtual integration vehicle.
Technical Paper

Transmission Algorithm Development using System Simulation (Virtual Vehicle)

Due to the multitude of external design constraints, such as increasing fuel economy standards, and the increasing number of global vehicle programs, developers of automotive transmission controls have had to cope with increasing levels of system complexity while at the same time being forced by the marketplace to improve system quality, reduce development costs, and improve time to market. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) chose to meet these challenges through General Motors Company's Road-to-Lab-to-Math (RLM) strategy, particularly the Math-based method of a virtual vehicle simulation environment called System Simulation. The use of System Simulation to develop transmission control algorithms has enabled GMPT to improve product quality and reduce development times and costs associated with the dependence on physical prototypes. Additionally, System Simulation has facilitated the reuse of GMPT controls development assets, improving overall controls development efficiency.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering and Control System Development via Virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

Model-based control system design improves quality, shortens development time, lowers engineering cost, and reduces rework. Evaluating a control system's performance, functionality, and robustness in a simulation environment avoids the time and expense of developing hardware and software for each design iteration. Simulating the performance of a design can be straightforward (though sometimes tedious, depending on the complexity of the system being developed) with mathematical models for the hardware components of the system (plant models) and control algorithms for embedded controllers. This paper describes a software tool and a methodology that not only allows a complete system simulation to be performed early in the product design cycle, but also greatly facilitates the construction of the model by automatically connecting the components and subsystems that comprise it.
Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality

GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
Technical Paper

Verifying Code Automatically Generated From an Executable Model

Currently in the automotive industry, most software source code is manually generated (i.e., hand written). This manually generated code is written to satisfy requirements that are generally specified or captured in an algorithm document. However, this process can be very error prone since errors can be introduced during the manual translation of the algorithm document to code. A better method would be to automatically generate code directly from the algorithm document. Therefore, the automotive industry is striving to model new and existing algorithms in an executable-modeling paradigm where code can be automatically generated. The advent of executable models together with automatic code generation should allow the translation of model to code to be error free, and this error-free status can be confirmed through testing. A three-stage process is presented to functionally verify the model, functionally verify the automatically-generated code, and structurally verify the code.
Technical Paper

Software Subsystem Behavioral Testing for Real-Time Embedded Controller Applications

A software behavioral test determines whether software execution under given input conditions matches the requirements established for the software. A tool that can perform such tests on software subsystems has been developed. The tool evaluates real-time control software written for embedded controller applications and detects many software behavioral problems that previously were found only on the bench or in the prototype. The tool is PC/workstation-based, emulates operating system characteristics of typical embedded controllers, and employs a distributed architecture that supports global engineering.