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Viewing 1 to 19 of 19
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0794
Reed Hanson, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve high efficiency combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is reduce the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and direct injection of diesel fuel. Natural gas/diesel RCCI engine operation is compared over the EPA Heavy-Duty 13 mode supplemental emissions test with and without EGR.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1796
Andrew Ickes, Reed Hanson, Thomas Wallner
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0837
Reed Hanson, Shawn Spannbauer, Christopher Gross, Rolf D. Reitz, Scott Curran, John Storey, Shean Huff
Abstract In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1323
Reed Hanson, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions using a high-bandwidth, transient capable engine test cell. Transient RCCI and CDC combustion and emissions results are compared over an up-speed change from 1,000 to 2,000 rev/min. and a down-speed change from 2,000 to 1,000 rev/min. at a constant 2.0 bar BMEP load. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending with port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0050
Reed Hanson, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions, while maintaining high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI steady-state performance studies provided a fundamental understanding of the RCCI combustion process in steady-state, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine tests. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions. In this study, a high-bandwidth, transient-capable engine test cell was used and multi-cylinder engine RCCI combustion is compared to CDC over a step load change from 1 to 4 bar BMEP at 1,500 rev/min. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and used the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1653
Reed Hanson, Scott Curran, Robert Wagner, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over a wide number of operating points representing vehicle operation over the US EPA FTP test. Similarly, previous RCCI engine experiments have used petroleum based fuels such as ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and gasoline, with some work done using high percentages of biofuels, namely E85 [7]. The current study was conducted to examine RCCI performance with moderate biofuel blends, such as E20 and B20, as compared to conventional gasoline and ULSD.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1661
Christopher Kolodziej, Martin Wissink, Derek Splitter, Reed Hanson, Rolf D. Reitz, Jesus Benajes
Many concepts of premixed diesel combustion at reduced temperatures have been investigated over the last decade as a means to simultaneously decrease engine-out particle and oxide of nitrogen (NO ) emissions. To overcome the trade-off between simultaneously low particle and NO emissions versus high "diesel-like" combustion efficiency, a new dual-fuel technique called Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been researched. In the present study, particle size distributions were measured from RCCI for four gasoline:diesel compositions from 65%:35% to 84%:16%, respectively. Previously, fuel blending (reactivity control) had been carried out by a port fuel injection of the higher volatility fuel and a direct in-cylinder injection of the lower volatility fuel. With a recent mechanical upgrade, it was possible to perform injections of both fuels directly into the combustion chamber.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0289
Scott Curran, Reed Hanson, Robert Wagner, Rolf D. Reitz
In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0376
Scott Curran, Reed Hanson, Robert Wagner
This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI).
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0380
Reed Hanson, Scott Curran, Robert Wagner, Sage Kokjohn, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that produces low NO and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom-machined pistons designed for RCCI operation.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0047
Derek Splitter, Reed Hanson, Sage Kokjohn, Martin Wissink, Rolf D. Reitz
Dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine experiments were conducted with port fuel injection of isooctane and direct injection of n-heptane. The experiments were conducted at a nominal load of 4.75 bar IMEPg, with low isooctane equivalence ratios. Two sets of experiments explored the effects of direct injection timing with single and double injections, and multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to explore mixture preparation and timing effects. The findings were that if fuel-liner impingement is to be avoided, double injections provide a 40% reduction in CO and HC emissions, resulting in a 1% increase in thermal efficiency. The second engine experiment showed that there is a linear relationship between reactivity (PRF number) and intake temperature. It was also found that if the premixed fuel fraction is above a certain limit, the high-temperature heat release (HTHR) can be manipulated by changing the global PRF number of the in-cylinder fuel blend.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0363
Derek Splitter, Reed Hanson, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) to realize highly-efficient combustion with near zero levels of NOx and PM. In-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injection of higher reactivity fuels was used to control combustion phasing and duration. In addition to injection and operating parameters, the study explored the effect of fuel properties by considering both gasoline-diesel dual-fuel operation, ethanol (E85)-diesel dual fuel operation, and a single fuel gasoline-gasoline+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide cetane improver). Remarkably, high gross indicated thermal efficiencies were achieved, reaching 59%, 56%, and 57% for E85-diesel, gasoline-diesel, and gasoline-gasoline+DTBP respectively.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0361
Reed Hanson, Sage Kokjohn, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition combustion (RCCI) has been demonstrated at mid to high loads [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] as a method to operate an internal combustion engine that produces low NOx and low PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI engine operation at loads of 2 and 4.5 bar gross IMEP at engine speeds between 800 and 1700 rev/min. This load range was selected to cover the range from the previous work of 6 bar gIMEP down to an off-idle load at 2 bar. The fueling strategy for the low load investigation consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of either diesel fuel or gasoline doped with 3.5% by volume 2-EHN (2-ethylhexyl nitrate). At these loads, engine operating conditions such as inlet air temperature, port fuel percentage, and engine speed were varied to investigate their effect on combustion.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0357
Sage Kokjohn, Reed Hanson, Derek Splitter, John Kaddatz, Rolf D. Reitz
Single-cylinder engine experiments were used to investigate a fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept in both light- and heavy-duty engines and comparisons were made between the two engine classes. It was found that with only small changes in the injection parameters, the combustion characteristics of the heavy-duty engine could be adequately reproduced in the light-duty engine. Comparisons of the emissions and performance showed that both engines can simultaneously achieve NOx below 0.05 g/kW-hr, soot below 0.01 g/kW-hr, ringing intensity below 4 MW/m2, and gross indicated efficiencies above 50 per cent. However, it was found that the peak gross indicated efficiency of the baseline light-duty engine was approximately 7 per cent lower than the heavy-duty engine. The energy balances of the two engines were compared and it was found that the largest factor contributing to the lower efficiency of the light-duty engine was increased heat transfer losses.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2167
Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz, Reed Hanson
Heavy-duty engine experiments were conducted to explore reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion through addition of the cetane improver di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) to pump gasoline. Unlike previous diesel/gasoline dual-fuel operation of RCCI combustion, the present study investigates the feasibility of using a single fuel stock (gasoline) as the basis for both high reactivity and low reactivity fuels. The strategy consisted of port fuel injection of gasoline and direct injection of the same gasoline doped with a small volume percent addition of DTBP. With 1.75% DTBP by volume added to only the direct-injected fuel (which accounts for approximately 0.2% of the total fueling) it was found that the additized gasoline behaved similarly to diesel fuel, allowing for efficient RCCI combustion. The single fuel results with DTBP were compared to previous high-thermal efficiency, low-emissions results with port injection of gasoline and direct injections of diesel.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0864
Reed M. Hanson, Sage L. Kokjohn, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at a medium engine load of 9 bar net IMEP and was also found to be effective to prevent excessive rates of pressure rise. Parameters used in the experiments were guided from the KIVA-CHEMKIN code with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism including injection timings, fuel percentages, and intake valve closing (IVC) timings for dual-fuel PCCI combustion. The engine experiments were conducted with a conventional common rail injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) and demonstrated control and versatility of dual-fuel PCCI combustion with the proper fuel blend, SOI and IVC timings.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0345
Derek Splitter, Sage Kokjohn, Keith Rein, Reed Hanson, Scott Sanders, Rolf D. Reitz
The ignition process of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion was investigated using engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. The experiments were performed using a modified all metal heavy-duty, compression-ignition engine. The engine was fueled using commercially available gasoline (PON 91.6) and ULSD diesel delivered through separate port and direct injection systems, respectively. Experiments were conducted at a steady state-engine load of 4.5 bar IMEP and speed of 1300 rev/min. In-cylinder optical measurements focused on understanding the fuel decomposition and fuel reactivity stratification provided through the charge preparation. The measurement technique utilized point location optical access through a modified cylinder head with two access points in the firedeck. Optical measurements of natural thermal emission were performed with an FTIR operating in the 2-4.5 μm spectral region.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2647
Sage L. Kokjohn, Reed M. Hanson, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1442
Reed Hanson, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Viewing 1 to 19 of 19