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Technical Paper
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Matthew P. Reed
Abstract Seat fit is characterized by the spatial relationship between the seat and the vehicle occupant’s body. Seat surface pressure distribution is one of the best available quantitative measures of this relationship. However, the relationships between sitter attributes, pressure, and seat fit have not been well established. The objective of this study is to model seat pressure distribution as a function of the dimensions of the seat and the occupant’s body. A laboratory study was conducted using 12 production driver seats from passenger vehicles and light trucks. Thirty-eight men and women sat in each seat in a driving mockup. Seat surface pressure distribution was measured on the seatback and cushion. Relevant anthropometric dimensions were recorded for each participant and standardized dimensions based on SAE J2732 (2008) were acquired for each test seat.
Technical Paper
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
Abstract This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure SAE J2732 (2008) seat dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated dimension-extraction process consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, back and cushion angles, (2) calculate centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
Technical Paper
K. Han Kim, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Automotive seats are commonly described by one-dimensional measurements, including those documented in SAE J2732. However, 1-D measurements provide minimal information on seat shape. The goal of this work was to develop a statistical framework to analyze and model the surface shapes of seats by using techniques similar to those that have been used for modeling human body shapes. The 3-D contour of twelve driver seats of a pickup truck and sedans were scanned and aligned, and 408 landmarks were identified using a semi-automatic process. A template mesh of 18,306 vertices was morphed to match the scan at the landmark positions, and the remaining nodes were automatically adjusted to match the scanned surface. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the resulting homologous meshes. Each seat was uniquely represented by a set of PC scores; 10 PC scores explained 95% of the total variance. This new shape description has many applications.
Technical Paper
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
Journal Article
Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
Journal Article
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Seat belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant protection. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 210 specifies requirements for the layout of the anchorages relative to the seating reference point and seat back angle established by the SAE J826 H-point manikin. Sled testing and computational simulation has established that belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant kinematics, particularly for child occupants using the belt as their primary restraint. As part of a larger study of vehicle geometry, the locations of the anchorage points in the second-row, outboard seating positions of 83 passenger cars and light trucks with a median model year of 2005 were measured. The lower anchorage locations spanned the entire range of lap belt angles permissible under FMVSS 210 and the upper anchorages (D-ring locations) were distributed widely as well.
Technical Paper
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert-Hamilton, Miriam A. Manary, Kathleen D. Klinich, Lawrence W. Schneider
This paper presents a laboratory study of body dimensions, seated posture, and seatbelt fit for children weighing from 40 to 100 lb (18 to 45 kg). Sixty-two boys and girls were measured in three vehicle seats with and without each of three belt-positioning boosters. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements, three-dimensional body landmark locations were recorded with a coordinate digitizer in sitter-selected and standardized postures. This new database quantifies the vehicle-seated postures of children and provides quantitative evidence of the effects of belt-positioning boosters on belt fit. The data will provide guidance for child restraint design, crash dummy development, and crash dummy positioning procedures.
Technical Paper
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert, Michael E. Carlson
This paper describes the design and development of a family of surrogate child restraints that are intended for use in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. Detailed measurements were made of the geometry and mass distribution characteristics of 34 commercial child restraints, including infant restraints, convertibles, combination restraints, and boosters. The restraints were installed in three test seats with appropriately sized crash dummies to obtain data on seat-surface pressure patterns and the position and orientation of the restraint with belt loading. The data were used to construct two surrogates with removable components. The convertible surrogate can be used to represent a rear-facing infant restraint with or without a base, a rear-facing convertible, or a forward-facing convertible. The booster surrogate can represent a high-back belt-positioning booster, a backless booster, or a forward-facing-only restraint with a five-point harness.
Technical Paper
Sheila M. Ebert, Matthew P. Reed
Improvements in the accessibility and ease of use of seatbelts require an understanding of driver belt donning behavior. Participants in a study of driving posture were videotaped as they put on their belts in their own vehicles, either an SUV or a midsize sedan. The participants were unaware that the purpose of the videotaping was related to the seatbelt. Videos from 95 men and women were analyzed to identify several categories of belt-donning behavior and to analyze the influence of body dimensions. The results have applicability to seatbelt system design, including the use of human figure models to assess seatbelt accessibility.
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