Criteria

Text:
Author:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 49
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2184
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Tufano
Abstract Nowadays, the development of a new engine is becoming more and more complex due to conflicting factors regarding technical, environmental and economic issues. The experimental activity has to comply with the above complexities, resulting in increasing cost and duration of engine development. For this reason, the simulation is becoming even more prominent, thanks to its lower financial burden, together with the need of an improved predictive capability. Among the other numerical approaches, the 1D models represent a proper compromise between reliability and computational effort, especially if the engine behavior has to be investigated over a number of operating conditions. The combustion model has a key role in this contest and the research of consistent approaches is still on going. In this paper, two well-assessed combustion models for Spark Ignition (SI) engines are described and compared: the eddy burn-up theory and the fractal approach.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0015
Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Tufano
Abstract Nowadays different technical solutions have been proposed to improve the performance of internal combustion engines, especially in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). Its reduction of course contributes to comply with the CO2 emissions legislation for vehicle homologation. Concerning the spark ignition engines, the downsizing coupled to turbocharging demonstrated a proper effectiveness to improve the BSFC at part load. On the other hand, at high load, the above solution highly penalizes the fuel consumption mainly because of knock onset, that obliges to degrade the combustion phasing and/or enrich the air/fuel mixture. A promising technique to cope with the above drawbacks consists in the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) concept. An optimal Compression Ratio (CR) selection, in fact, allows for further improvements of the thermodynamic efficiency at part load, while at high load, it permits to mitigate knock propensity, resulting in more optimized combustions.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0014
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Pietro Giannattasio, Luigi Teodosio, Luca Marchitto
Abstract The technique of liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake port of downsized boosted SI engines is a promising solution to improve the knock resistance at high loads. In this work, an existing 1D engine model has been extended to improve its ability to simulate the effects of the water injection on the flame propagation speed and knock onset. The new features of the 1D model include an improved treatment of the heat subtracted by the water evaporation, a newly developed correlation for the laminar flame speed, explicitly considering the amount of water in the unburned mixture, and a more detailed kinetic mechanism to predict the auto-ignition characteristics of fuel/air/water mixture. The extended 1D model is validated against experimental data collected at different engine speeds and loads, including knock-limited operation, for a twin-cylinder turbocharged SI engine.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0062
Cinzia Tornatore, Daniela Siano, Luca Marchitto, Arturo Iacobacci, Gerardo Valentino, Fabio Bozza
Abstract Knock occurrence and fuel enrichment, which is required at high engine speed and load to limit the turbine inlet temperature, are the major obstacles to further increase performance and efficiency of down-sized turbocharged spark ignited engines. A technique that has the potential to overcome these restrictions is based on the injection of a precise amount of water within the mixture charge that can allow to achieve important benefits on knock mitigation, engine efficiency, gaseous and noise emissions. One of the main objectives of this investigation is to demonstrate that water injection (WI) could be a reliable solution to advance the spark timing and make the engine run at leaner mixture ratios with strong benefits on knock tendency and important improvement on fuel efficiency.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0540
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract In this work, a promising technique, consisting of a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports, is investigated to overcome over-fueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized boosted engines, operating at high loads. In a first stage, experimental tests are carried out in a spark-ignition twin-cylinder turbocharged engine at a fixed rotational speed and medium-high loads. In particular, a spark timing and a water-to-fuel ratio sweep are both specified, to analyze the WI capability in increasing the knock-limited spark advance. In a second stage, the considered engine is schematized in a 1D framework. The model, developed in the GT-Power™ environment, includes user defined procedures for the description of combustion and knock phenomena. Computed results are compared with collected data for all the considered operating conditions, in terms of average performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles, burn rate profiles, and knock propensity, as well.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2178
Daniela Siano, Gerardo Valentino, Fabio Bozza, Arturo Iacobacci, Luca Marchitto
Abstract In this paper, a downsized twin-cylinder turbocharged spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to verify the potential to estimate the peak pressure value and the related crank angle position, based on vibrational data acquired by an accelerometer sensor. Purpose of the activity is to provide the ECU of additional information to establish a closed-loop control of the spark timing, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In this way, an optimal combustion phasing can be more properly accomplished in each engine operating condition. Engine behavior is firstly characterized in terms of average thermodynamic and performance parameters and cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) at high-load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an A/F ratio sweep are actuated. In-cylinder pressure data are acquired by pressure sensors flush-mounted within the combustion chamber of both cylinders.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2230
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Siano, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract In this paper, the results of an extensive experimental analysis regarding a twin-cylinder spark-ignition turbocharged engine are employed to build up an advanced 1D model, which includes the effects of cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) on the combustion process. Objective of the activity is to numerically estimate the CCV impact primarily on fuel consumption and knock behavior. To this aim, the engine is experimentally characterized in terms of average performance parameters and CCVs at high and low load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an air-to-fuel ratio (α) sweep are actuated. Acquired pressure signals are processed to estimate the rate of heat release and the main combustion events. Moreover, the Coefficient of Variation of IMEP (CoVIMEP) and of in-cylinder peak pressure (CoVpmax) are evaluated to quantify the cyclic dispersion and identify its dependency on peak pressure position.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1813
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
Abstract The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0545
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi, Fabio Berni
Abstract It is widely recognized that spatial and temporal evolution of both macro- and micro- turbulent scales inside internal combustion engines affect air-fuel mixing, combustion and pollutants formation. Particularly, in spark ignition engines, tumbling macro-structure induces the generation of a proper turbulence level to sustain the development and propagation of the flame front. As known, 3D-CFD codes are able to describe the evolution of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence fields with good accuracy, although a high computational effort is required. For this reason, only a limited set of operating conditions is usually investigated. On the other hand, thanks to a lower computational burden, 1D codes can be employed to study engine performance in the whole operating domain, despite of a less detailed description of in-cylinder processes. The integration of 1D and 3D approaches appears hence a promising path to combine the advantages of both.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2393
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabrizio Minarelli, Diego Cacciatore
The results of the experimental analyses, described in Part 1, are here employed to build up an innovative numerical approach for the 1D modeling of combustion, cycle-by-cycle variations and knock of a high performance 12-cylinder spark-ignition engine. The whole engine is schematized in detail in a 1D framework simulation, developed in the GT-Power™ environment. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the combustion process, turbulence phenomenon, cycle-by-cycle variations (CCV) and knock occurrence. In particular, the knock onset is evaluated by a chemical kinetic scheme for a toluene reference fuel, able to detect the presence of auto-ignition reactions in the end-gas zone. In a first stage, the engine model is validated in terms of overall performance parameter and ensemble averaged pressure cycles, for various full and part load operating points and spark timings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1244
Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza
Abstract It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high/full load operation because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while TIT control requires enrichment of the Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio, with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, a promising technique, consisting of the introduction of a low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, is analyzed by means of a 1D numerical approach with reference to a downsized turbocharged SI engine. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the combustion process, turbulence phenomenon and the knock occurrence.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1720
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Silvia Marelli, Massimo Capobianco
Downsizing is widely considered one of the main path to reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition internal combustion engines. As known, despite the reduced size, the required torque and power targets can be attained thanks to an adequate boost level provided by a turbocharger. However, some drawbacks usually arise when the engine operates at full load and low speeds. In fact, in the above conditions, the boost pressure and the engine performance is limited since the compressor experiences close-to-surge operation. This occurrence is even greater in case of extremely downsized engines with a reduced number of cylinders and a small intake circuit volume, where the compressor works under strongly unsteady flow conditions and its instantaneous operating point most likely overcomes the steady surge margin. In the paper, both experimental and numerical approaches are followed to describe the unsteady behavior of a small in-series turbocharger compressor.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0063
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Danilo D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta Panza
Abstract In the present work, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, for knock detection purposes. To the aim of tuning such procedures, the same analysis has been carried out by using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index and an Inverse Kinetic Model (IKM), both applied on the in-cylinder pressure signals. Vibrational and in-cylinder pressure signals have been collected on a four cylinder, four stroke engine, for different engine speeds, load conditions and spark advances. The results of the two vibrational based methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2864
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis
This paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses aiming to improve the gas-dynamic noise emission of a downsized turbocharged VVA engine through the re-design of the intake air-box device, consisting in the introduction of external or internal resonators. Nowadays, modern spark-ignition (SI) engines show more and more complex architectures that, while improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), may be responsible for the increased noise radiation at the engine intake mouth. In particular VVA systems allow for the actuation of advanced valve strategies that provide a reduction in the BSFC at part load operations thanks to the intake line de-throttling. In these conditions, due to a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves that travel along the intake system, VVA engines produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2554
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Siano
Abstract Control of knock phenomenon is becoming more and more important in modern SI engine, due to the tendency to develop high boosted turbocharged engines (downsizing). To this aim, improved modeling and experimental techniques are required to precisely define the maximum allowable spark advance. On the experimental side, the knock limit is identified based on some indices derived by the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure traces or of the cylinder block vibrations. The threshold levels of the knock indices are usually defined following an heuristic approach. On the modeling side, in the 1D codes, the knock is usually described by simple correlation of the auto-ignition time of the unburned gas zone within the cylinders. In addition, the latter methodology commonly refers to ensemble-averaged pressure cycles and, for this reason, does not take into account the cycle-by-cycle variations.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1079
Vincenzo De Bellis, Silvia Marelli, Fabio Bozza, Massimo Capobianco
In the paper the results of an experimental campaign regarding the steady characterization of a turbocharger waste-gated turbine (IHI-RHF3) for gasoline engine application are presented. The turbine behavior is analyzed in a specialized test rig operating at the University of Genoa, under different openings of the waste-gate valve. The test facility allows to measure inlet and outlet static pressures, mass flow rate and turbocharger rotational speed. The above data constitute the basis for the tuning and validation of a numerical procedure, recently developed at the University of Naples, following a 1D approach (1D turbine model - 1DTM). The model geometrically schematizes the entire turbine based on few linear and angular dimensions directly measured on the hardware. The 1D steady flow equations are then solved within the stationary and rotating channels constituting the device. All the main flow losses are properly taken into account in the model.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1065
Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi, Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis
In the present paper, two different methodologies are adopted and critically integrated to analyze the knock behavior of a last generation small size spark ignition (SI) turbocharged VVA engine. Particularly, two full load operating points are selected, exhibiting relevant differences in terms of knock proximity. On one side, a knock investigation is carried out by means of an Auto-Regressive technique (AR model) to process experimental in-cylinder pressure signals. This mathematical procedure is used to estimate the statistical distribution of knocking cycles and provide a validation of the following 1D-3D knock investigations. On the other side, an integrated numerical approach is set up, based on the synergic use of 1D and 3D simulation tools. The 1D engine model is developed within the commercial software GT-Power™. It is used to provide time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the 3D code, Star-CD™.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1064
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Alfredo Gimelli, Massimiliano Muccillo
It is commonly recognized that the paths for improving fuel consumption (BSFC) in a spark-ignition engine at part-load require more advanced valve actuation strategies, which largely affect the pumping work. Since several years, many different solutions have been proposed, characterized by different levels of complexity, effectiveness, and cost. Valve systems currently available on the market allow for variable phasing (VVT - Variable Valve Timing), and/or lift (VVA - Variable Valve Actuation). Usually VVT devices are applied on intake and exhaust camshafts, in the “phased” or “unphased” configuration, as well. VVA devices are instead commonly mounted on the intake camshaft. More recent VVA systems also allow for a double intake valve lift during a single engine cycle (multi-lift), or may include a small intake pre-lift during the exhaust stroke. The latter solutions may determine further BSFC reductions. Alternatively, an external-EGR circuit can be considered, as well.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1693
Daniela Siano, Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza
Abstract The present paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses of the air-filter box of a turbocharged VVA engine, aiming to predict and improve the gas-dynamic noise emissions through a partial re-design of the device. First of all, the gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth is measured during a dedicated experimental campaign. The developed 1D and 3D models are then validated at full load operation, based on experimental data. In particular, 1D model provides a preliminary evaluation of the radiated noise and simultaneously gives reliable boundary conditions for the unsteady 3D CFD simulations. The latter indeed allow to better take into account the geometrical details of the air-filter and guarantee a more accurate gas-dynamic noise prediction. 3D CFD analyses put in evidence that sound emission mainly occur within a frequency range of 350 to 450 Hz.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2510
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
During the last years, a number of techniques aimed at the experimental identification of the knocking onset in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines have been proposed. Besides the traditional procedures based on the processing of in-cylinder pressure data in the frequency domain, in the present paper two innovative methods are developed and compared. The first one is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique, coupled to a prediction algorithm. It is shown that such parametric model, applied to the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure measurements, is highly sensitive to knock occurrence and is able to identify soft or heavy knock presence in different engine operating conditions. An alternative, more expensive procedure is developed and compared to the previous one.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0119
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Christof Schernus, Tolga Uhlmann
1D codes are nowadays commonly used to investigate a turbocharged ICE performance, turbo-matching and transient response. The turbocharger is usually described in terms of experimentally derived characteristic maps. The latter are commonly measured using the compressor as a brake for the turbine, under steady “hot gas” tests. This approach causes some drawbacks: each iso-speed is commonly limited to a narrow pressure ratio and mass flow rate range, while a wider operating domain is experienced on the engine; the turbine thermal conditions realized on the test rig may strongly differ from the coupled-to-engine operation; a “conventional” net turbine efficiency is really measured, since it includes the effects of the heat exchange on the compressor side, together with bearing friction and windage losses.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0120
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Marco Bevilacqua, Guido Bonamassa, Christof Schernus
In the present paper, a recently developed centrifugal compressor model is briefly summarized. It provides a refined geometrical schematization of the device, especially of the impeller, starting from a reduced set of linear and angular dimensions. A geometrical module reproduces the 3D geometry of the impeller and furnishes the data employed to solve the 1D flow equations inside the rotating and stationary ducts constituting the complete device. The 1D compressor model allows to predict the performance maps (pressure ratio and efficiency) with good accuracy, once the tuning of a number of parameters is realized to characterize various flow losses and heat exchange. To overcome the limitations related to the model tuning, unknown parameters are selected with reference to 5 different devices employing an optimization procedure (modeFRONTIER™).
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1884
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
Modern VVA systems offer new potentialities in improving fuel consumption for spark-ignition engines at low and medium load, meanwhile they grant a higher volumetric efficiency and performance at high load. Recently introduced systems enhance this concept through the possibility of modifying the intake valve opening, closing and lift, leading to the development of almost ‘throttle-less’ engines. However, at low loads, the absence of throttling, while improving the fuel consumption, also produces an increased gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth. Wave propagation inside the intake system is in fact no longer absorbed by the throttle valve and directly impact the radiated noise. In the paper, 1D and 3D simulations of the gas-dynamic noise radiated by a production VVA engine are performed at full load and in two part-load conditions. Both models are firstly validated at full load, through comparisons with experimental data.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1625
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Siano, Alfredo Gimelli
Modern VVA systems offer new potentialities in improving the fuel consumption for spark-ignition engines at low and medium load, meanwhile they grant a higher volumetric efficiency and performance at high load. Recently introduced systems enhance this concept through the possibility of concurrently modifying the intake valve opening, closing and lift leading to the development of almost "throttle-less" engines. However, at very low loads, the control of the air-flow motion and the turbulence intensity inside the cylinder may require to select a proper combination of the butterfly throttling and the intake valve control, to get the highest BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) reduction. Moreover, a low throttling, while improving the fuel consumption, may also produce an increased gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth. In highly "downsized" engines, the intake valve control is also linked to the turbocharger operating point, which may be changed by acting on the waste-gate valve.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0827
Fabio Bozza, Stefano Fontanesi, Alfredo Gimelli, Elena Severi, Daniela Siano
Knock occurrence is a widely recognized phenomenon to be controlled during the development and optimization of S.I. engines, since it bounds both compression ratio and spark advance, hence reducing the potential in gaining a lower fuel consumption. As a consequence, a clear understanding of the engine parameters affecting the onset of auto-ignition is mandatory for the engine setup. In view of the complexity of the phenomena, the use of combined experimental and numerical investigations is very promising. The paper reports such a combined activity, targeted at characterizing the combustion behavior of a small unit displacement two-stroke SI engine operated with either Gasoline or Natural Gas (CNG). In the paper, detailed multi-cycle 3D-CFD analyses, starting for preliminary 1D computed boundary conditions, are performed to accurately characterize the engine behavior in terms of scavenging efficiency and combustion.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0217
Daniela Siano, Fabio Auriemma PhD, Fabio Bozza, Hans Rammal lng
One dimensional (1D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations are widely used in technical acoustics to predict the behavior of duct system elements including fluid machines. In particular, referring to internal combustion engines, the numerical approaches can be used to estimate the Transmission Loss (TL) of mufflers, air boxes, catalytic converters, etc. TL is a parameter commonly used in almost any kind of acoustical filters, in order to assess the passive effects related to their sound attenuation. In this paper, a previous 1D-3D acoustical analysis of a commercial muffler, has been improved and experimentally validated. Features related to the manufacturing process, like the coupling of adjacent surfaces and the actual shape of components, have been noticed to heavily affect the muffler behavior.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0019
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Michela Costa
Despite the recent efforts devoted to develop alternative technologies, it is likely that the internal combustion engine will remain the dominant propulsion system for the next 30 years and beyond. Also as a consequence of more and more stringent emissions regulations established in the main industrialized countries, strongly demanded are methods and technologies able to enhance the internal combustion engines performance in terms of both efficiency and environmental impact. Present work focuses on the development of a numerical method for the optimization of the control strategy of a diesel engine equipped with a high pressure injection system, a variable geometry turbocharger and an EGR circuit. A preliminary experimental analysis is presented to characterize the considered six-cylinder engine under various speeds, loads and EGR ratios.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0216
Daniela Siano, Salvina Giacobbe, Fabio Bozza
In the paper a coupled Multi-Body and FEM-BEM methodology used to predict the noise radiated by a turbocharged 4-cylinder diesel engine prototype is described. A Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation (MBDS) of the engine has been carried out, simulating an engine speed sweep from 1500 to 4000 rpm, in order to determine the excitation force of the powertrain, and in particular to estimate the forces acting on the cylinder block. Thanks to the Multi-Body approach, the dynamics of the engine powertrain have been described taking into account both the effects of the burnt gas pressure during the combustion process and the inertia forces of the moving parts. Moreover to assess the real engine operating behaviour, both the crank and the block have been considered as flexible bodies.
2011-09-11
Journal Article
2011-24-0126
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis
One-dimensional (1D) models are commonly employed to study the performances of turbocharged engine. Manufacturers' provided steady turbomachinery maps are usually utilized, although they operate in unsteady conditions as a consequence of pressure pulses propagating into the intake and exhaust systems. This may lead to some inaccuracies in the engine-turbocharger matching calculations, which may be solved through the introduction of proper time-delays (virtual pipe corrections). These drawbacks, however, became more relevant when engine operates under low speed and high load conditions, or during a transient maneuver, because of possibilities of compressor surging.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1147
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Silvia Marelli, Massimo Capobianco
Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 49

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: