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Viewing 1 to 30 of 55
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1174
Vincent Freyermuth, Aymeric Rousseau
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1152
Jongryeol Jeong, Wonbin Lee, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0532
Hoon Lee, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim, Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts into developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the fuel economy benefit of an individual technology in specific systems and components. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, estimating the impact without building and testing an actual vehicle becomes very complex, because the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, a projection of fuel efficiency benefits from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineer’s insight since it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1144
Jongryeol Jeong, Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Building a vehicle model with sufficient accuracy for fuel economy analysis is a time-consuming process, even with the modern-day simulation tools. Obtaining the right kind of data for modeling a vehicle can itself be challenging, given that while OEMs advertise the power and torque capability of their engines, the efficiency data for the components or the control algorithms are not usually made available for independent verification. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds the testing of vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory, and the test data are publicly available. Argonne is also the premier DOE laboratory for the modeling and simulation of vehicles. By combining the resources and expertise with available data, a process has been created to automatically develop a model for any conventional vehicle that is tested at Argonne.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0152
Pierre Michel, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technologies mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less often, and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied, and any existing studies tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving aside electrified vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles-all midsize, one HEV, one BEV, and a conventional-are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity, forward-looking vehicle simulation tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0903
Ram Vijayagopal, Kevin Gallagher, Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract The energy density and power density comparison of conventional fuels and batteries is often mentioned as an advantage of conventional vehicles over electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this incomplete analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency and mass of the powertrain itself. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For instance, useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same (to drive 300 miles with a payload of about 300 lb). However, the test weight of a Conventional vehicle and BEV will differ on the basis of what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1213
Ram Vijayagopal, Kevin Gallagher, Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Present-day battery technologies support a battery electric vehicle with a 300mile range (BEV 300), but the cost of such a vehicle hinders its large-scale adoption by consumers. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set aggressive cost targets for battery technologies. At present, no single technology meets the cost, energy, and power requirements of a BEV 300, but a combination of multiple batteries with different capabilities might be able to lower the overall cost closer to the DOE target. This study looks at how such a combination can be implemented in vehicle simulation models and compares the vehicle manufacturing and operating costs to a baseline BEV 300. Preliminary analysis shows an opportunity to modestly reduce BEV 300 energy storage system cost by about 8% using a battery pack that combines an energy and power battery. The baseline vehicle considered in the study uses a single battery sized to meet both the power and energy requirements of a BEV 300.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1151
Jongryeol Jeong, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Abstract This paper presents the validation of an entire vehicle model of the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has a new powertrain system that can be driven in both series and parallel hybrid drive using a clutch, including thermal aspects. The Accord PHEV is a series-parallel PHEV with about 21 km of all-electric range and no multi-speed gearbox. Vehicle testing was performed at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility on a chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber. First, components (engine, battery, motors and wheels) were modeled using the test data and publicly available assumptions. This includes calibration of the thermal aspects, such as engine efficiency as a function of coolant temperature. In the second phase, the vehicle-level control strategy, especially the energy management, was analyzed in normal conditions in both charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1712
Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can be used for a variety of applications in automobiles. There is a lot of interest in using them for waste heat recovery from a fuel economy point of view. This paper examines the potential of TEGs to provide cost-effective improvements in the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Simulation analysis is used to quantify fuel economy benefits. The paper explains how a TEG is used in a vehicle and explores the idea of improving the TEG design by introducing a thermal reservoir in the TEG model to improve the waste heat recovery. An effort is made to identify the technological and economic barriers (and their thresholds) that could prevent TEGs from becoming an acceptable means of waste heat recovery in automobiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0978
Lori Lemazurier, Neeraj Shidore, Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau, Phillip Bonkoski, Jeremy Delhom
Abstract Near-term advances in spark ignition (SI) engine technology (e.g., variable value lift [VVL], gasoline direct injection [GDI], cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of delivering significant fuel savings for vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher (8-speed, 9-speed) gear numbers, higher spans, and a focus on downspeeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual-clutch transmissions, which exhibit higher efficiency in lower gears, than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light-duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development requiring low investment and delivering immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (micro hybrids or idle engine stop technology) technology in vehicles today.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1157
Namwook Kim, Jongryeol Jeong, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract For electrified vehicles, understanding the impact of temperature on vehicle control and performances becomes more important than before because the vehicle might consume more energy than conventional vehicles due to lack of the engine waste heat. Argonne has tested many advanced vehicles and analyzed the vehicle level control based on the test data. As part of its ongoing effort, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was tested in thermal environmental chamber, and the vehicle level control and performances are analyzed by observing the test results. The analysis results show that the control of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is similar with Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) when the vehicle is under a charge sustaining mode, and the vehicle tries to consume the electric energy first under a charge depleting mode.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1160
Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Neeraj Shidore, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel use across a wide range of dynamometer test driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknowns is the impact of driving behavior and standard test procedure on the true benefits of PHEVs from a worldwide perspective. To address this issue, five different PHEV powertrain configurations (input split, parallel, series, series-output split and series-parallel), implemented on vehicles with different all-electric ranges (AERs), were analyzed on three different standard cycles (i.e., Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and New European Driving Cycle). Component sizes, manufacturing cost, and fuel consumption were analyzed for a midsize car in model year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1082
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1106
Sylvain Pagerit, Thierry Roudier, Phillip Sharer, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Many of today's advanced simulation tools are suitable for modeling specific systems, but they provide rather limited support for automated model building and management. The diverse tools available for modeling different components of a vehicle make it all the more challenging to comprehend their integration and interactions and analyze the complete system. In addition, the complexities and sizes of the models require a better use of computing resources, such as multicore or remote processing, to greatly reduce the simulation time. In this paper we describe how modern software techniques can support modeling and design activities, with the objective to create system models quickly by assembling them in a “plug-and-play” architecture. System models can be integrated, co-simulated, and reused regardless of the environment in which they are developed, and their simulation results can be consolidated for analysis into a single tool.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1084
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1784
Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Daeheung Lee, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract This paper introduces control strategy analysis and performance degradation for the 2010 Toyota Prius under different thermal conditions. The goal was to understand, in as much detail as possible, the impact of thermal conditions on component and vehicle performances by analyzing a number of test data obtained under different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory. A previous study analyzed the control behavior and performance under a normal ambient temperature; thus the first step in this study was to focus on the impact when the ambient temperature is cold or hot. Based on the analyzed results, thermal component models were developed in which the vehicle controller in the simulation was designed to mimic the control behavior when temperatures of the components are cold or hot. Further, the performance degradation of the components was applied to the mathematical models based on analysis of the test data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1778
Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1818
Namwook Kim, Eric Rask, Aymeric Rousseau
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1809
Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Abstract This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1472
Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1458
Namdoo Kim, Michael Duoba, Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
The first commercially available Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in December 2010. The Volt's powertrain architecture provides four modes of operation, including two that are unique and maximize the Volt's efficiency and performance. The electric transaxle has been specially designed to enable patented operating modes both to improve the electric driving range when operating as a battery electric vehicle and to reduce fuel consumption when extending the range by operating with an internal combustion engine (ICE). However, details on the vehicle control strategy are not widely available because the supervisory control algorithm is proprietary.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1040
Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
The Prius - a power-split hybrid electric vehicle from Toyota - has become synonymous with the word “Hybrid.” As of October 2010, two million of these vehicles had been sold worldwide, including one million vehicles purchased in the United States. In 2004, the second generation of the vehicle, the Prius MY04, enhanced the performance of the components with advanced technologies, such as a new magnetic array in the rotors. However, the third generation of the vehicle, the Prius MY10, features a remarkable change of the configuration - an additional reduction gear has been added between the motor and the output of the transmission [1]. In addition, a change in the energy management strategy has been found by analyzing the results of a number of tests performed at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (ARRF).
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1011
Ayman Moawad, Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1027
Namdoo Kim, Jason Kwon, Aymeric Rousseau
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1280
Neeraj Shidore, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, Aymeric Rousseau, James Sevik, Mehrdad Ehsani
Their easy availability, lower well-to-wheel emissions, and relative ease of use with existing engine technologies have made ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends a viable alternative to gasoline for use in spark-ignition (SI) engines. The lower energy density of ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends, however, results in higher volumetric fuel consumption compared with gasoline. Also, the higher latent heat of vaporization can result in cold-start issues with higher-level ethanol blends. On the other hand, a higher octane number, which indicates resistance to knock and potentially enables more optimal combustion phasing, results in better engine efficiency, especially at higher loads. This paper compares the fuel consumption and emissions of two ethanol blends (E50 and E85) with those for gasoline when used in conventional (non-hybrid) and power-split-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0754
Ram V.Gopal, Aymeric P. Rousseau
Many of today's advanced simulation tools are suitable for modeling specific systems; however, they provide rather limited support for model building and management. Setting up a detailed vehicle simulation model requires more than writing down state equations and running them on a computer. In this paper, we describe how modern software techniques can be used to support modeling and design activities, with the objective of providing better system models more quickly by assembling these system models in a “plug-and-play” architecture. Instead of developing detailed models specifically for Argonne National Laboratory's Autonomie modeling tool, we have chosen to place emphasis on integrating and re-using the system models, regardless of the environment in which they were initially developed. By way of example, this paper describes a vehicle model composed of a detailed engine model from GT Power, a transmission from AMESim, and with vehicle dynamics from CarSim.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0873
Namwook Kim, Aymeric P. Rousseau
Over the past couple of years, numerous Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) powertrain configurations have been introduced into the marketplace. Currently, the dominant architecture is the power-split configuration, notably the input splits from Toyota Motor Sales and Ford Motor Company. This paper compares two vehicle-level control strategies that have been developed to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining acceptable performance and drive quality. The first control is rules based and was developed on the basis of test data from the Toyota Prius as provided by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne's) Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. The second control is based on an instantaneous optimization developed to minimize the system losses at every sample time. This paper describes the algorithms of each control and compares vehicle fuel economy (FE) on several drive cycles.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2325
Lawrence Michaels, Sylvain Pagerit, Aymeric Rousseau, Phillip Sharer, Shane Halbach, Ram Vijayagopal, Michael Kropinski, Gregory Matthews, Minghui Kao, Onassis Matthews, Michael Steele, Anthony Will
Model-based control system design improves quality, shortens development time, lowers engineering cost, and reduces rework. Evaluating a control system's performance, functionality, and robustness in a simulation environment avoids the time and expense of developing hardware and software for each design iteration. Simulating the performance of a design can be straightforward (though sometimes tedious, depending on the complexity of the system being developed) with mathematical models for the hardware components of the system (plant models) and control algorithms for embedded controllers. This paper describes a software tool and a methodology that not only allows a complete system simulation to be performed early in the product design cycle, but also greatly facilitates the construction of the model by automatically connecting the components and subsystems that comprise it.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2310
R. Vijayagopal, P. Maloney, J. Kwon, A. Rousseau
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1931
Dominik Karbowski, Antoine Delorme, Aymeric Rousseau
Hybrid electric vehicles have demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce fuel consumption for several medium- and heavy-duty applications. In this paper we analyze the impact on fuel economy of the hybridization of a tractor-trailer. The study is done in PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), which is a modeling and simulation toolkit for light- and heavy-duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Two hybrid configurations are taken into account, each one of them associated with a level of hybridization. The mild-hybrid truck is based on a parallel configuration with the electric machine in a starter-alternator position; this allows start/stop engine operations, a mild level of torque assist, and a limited amount of regenerative braking. The full-hybrid truck is based on a series-parallel configuration with two electric machines: one in a starter-alternator position and another one between the clutch and the gearbox.
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