Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
Technical Paper
HeeJe Seong, Kyeong Lee, Seungmok Choi
Detailed characteristics of particulate matter (PM) from a gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of primary and aggregate particle sizes, morphology, and nanostructures. For the work, PM was collected from exhaust streams of the engine on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids by using a thermophoretic sampler. To evaluate the effects of engine load and speed on the properties of PM, the engine was operated at loads of 25, 50, and 75% at 1500 and 3000 rpm. In addition, the effects of fuel injection timing on the PM were examined for samples subjected to injection timings of 190, 230, 260, 300 and 330° bTDC at the constant engine load (50% load) and speed (1500 rpm). The results showed that with advancing injection timing, average primary and aggregate particle sizes gradually increased, which implies that fuel-air mixing is a crucial factor influencing particle size.
Technical Paper
Kyeong O. Lee, HeeJe Seong, Stephen Sakai, Mitchell Hageman, David Rothamer
Detailed properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of size, morphology, and nanostructures, as gasoline and its ethanol blend E20 were used as a fuel. PM emissions were sampled from a 0.55L single-cylinder GDI engine by means of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size measurements and a self-designed thermophoretic sampling device for the subsequent analyses of size, morphology and nanostructures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle sizes were evaluated with variations of air-fuel equivalence ratio and fuel injection timing. The most important result from the SMPS measurements was that the number of nucleation-mode nanoparticles (particularly those smaller than 10 - 15 nm) increased significantly as the fuel injection timing was advanced to the end-of-injection angle of 310° bTDC.
Technical Paper
Seungmok Choi, Kyeong Lee
Detailed soot deposition and oxidation characteristics in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) have been experimentally examined on a unique bench-scale DPF test system that has a visualization window. The filtration and regeneration processes were visualized to examine soot deposition and oxidation behaviors on the filter channel surfaces, along with measurements of pressure drop across the filter. The pressure drop caused by trapped soot was separated from the measured total pressure drop by subtracting the pressure drop caused by the clean filter itself. Then, the soot-derived pressure-drop data, normalized (non-dimensionalized) by the volumetric flow rate, exhaust gas viscosity, and DPF volume, were used to compare filtration and regeneration characteristics at different experimental conditions, independently of flow conditions.
Technical Paper
Hoon Lee, Kyeong O. Lee
A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been developed to predict flow dynamics and pressure drop characteristics in geometry-modified filters in which the normalized distance of the outlet channel plugs from the inlet has been varied at 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75. In clean filter simulations, the pressure drop in geometry-modified filters showed higher values than for conventional filters because of the significant change in the pressure field formed inside the channel that determines the amount of flow entering the modified channel. This flow through the modified channel depends on plug position initially but has a maximum limit when pressure difference and geometrical change are compromised. For soot loading simulations, a Lagrangian multiphase flow model was used to interpret the hydrodynamics of particle-laden flow with realistic inputs.
Technical Paper
HeeJe Seong, Kyeong O. Lee, Seungmok Choi, Cory Adams, David E. Foster
Detailed characteristics of morphology, nanostructures, and sizes were analyzed for particulate matter (PM) emissions from low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes of a single-cylinder, light-duty diesel engine. The LTC engines have been widely studied in an effort to achieve high combustion efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Recent reports indicate that the number of nucleation mode particles increased in a broad engine operating range, which implies a negative impact on future PM emissions regulations in terms of the nanoparticle number. However, the size measurement of solid carbon particles by commercial instruments is indeed controversial due to the contribution of volatile organics to small nanoparticles. In this work, an LTC engine was operated with various biofuel blends, such as blends (B20) of soy bean oil (soy methyl ester, SME20) and palm oil (palm methyl ester, PME20), as well as an ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
Seung Yang, Kyeong Lee, Hwansoo Chong
At the current stage of engine technology, diesel engines typically require diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems to meet recent particulate emissions standards. To assure the performance and reliability of DPF systems, profound understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms is required. Among extensive efforts for developing advanced DPF systems, the development of effective thermal management strategies, which control the thermal runaway taking place in oxidation of an excess amount of soot deposit in DPF, is quite challenging. This difficulty stems mainly from lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding about DPF regeneration mechanisms, which need detailed information about oxidation of diesel particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this work carried out a series of oxidation experiments of diesel particulates collected from a DPF on a diesel engine, and evaluated the oxidation rates of the samples using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA).
Technical Paper
Kyeong O. Lee, Seung Yeon Yang
The limited spatial area in conventional diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems requires frequent regenerations to remove collected particulate matter (PM) emissions, consequently resulting in higher energy consumption and potential material failure. Due to the complex geometry and difficulty in access to the internal structure of diesel particulate filters, in addition, many important characteristics in filtration processes remain unknown. In this work, therefore, the geometry of DPF membrane channels was modified basically to increase the filtration areas, and their filtration characteristics were evaluated in terms of pressure drop across the DPF membranes, effects of soot loading on pressure drop, and qualitative soot mass distribution in the membrane channels. In this evaluation, an analytical model was developed for pressure drop, which allowed a parametric study with those modified membranes.
Technical Paper
Hwansoo Chong, Seung Yeon Yang, Kyeong Ook Lee
In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper
Juhun Song, Kyeong O. Lee
Detailed diesel particulates morphology, nanostructures, fractal geometry, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were analyzed for five different test fuels in a 1.7-L, common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The accurately formulated fuels permit the effects of sulfur, paraffins, aromatics, and naphthene concentrations to be determined. A novel thermophoretic sampling technique was used to collect particulates immediately after the exhaust valves. The morphology and nanostructures of particulate samples were examined, imaged with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and quantitatively analyzed with customized digital image processing/data acquisition systems. The results show that the particle sizes and the total mass of particulate matter (PM) emissions correlate most strongly with the fuels' aromatics and sulfur content.
Technical Paper
Jinyu Zhu, Kyeong Lee
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a commonly used technique for the reduction of Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines. However, it is generally known that the use of EGR will cause an increase in emissions of particulate matter (PM). The effects of EGR operating mode on particulate morphology were investigated for a 1.7-liter light-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a turbocharged and inter-cooled air induction system, a common-rail direct fuel injection system, and an EGR system. A rapid prototyping electronic control system (RPECS) was developed to operate this engine at various EGR rates under different conditions (i.e. constant boost pressure, constant oxygen-to-fuel ratio (OFR)). A unique thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from exhaust manifold after exhaust valves.
Technical Paper
Kyeong Ook Lee, Jinyu Zhu
The detailed morphological properties of diesel particulate matter were analyzed along the exhaust system at various engine operating conditions (in a range of 1000 - 2500 rpm and 10 - 75 % loads of maximum torques). A 1.7-L turbocharged light-duty diesel engine was powered with California low-sulfur diesel fuel injected by a common-rail injection system, of which particulate emissions were controlled by an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and two oxidation catalysts. A unique thermophoretic sampling system first developed for internal combustion engine research, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a customized image processing/data acquisition system were key instruments that were used for the collection of particulate matter, subsequent imaging of particle morphology, and detailed analysis of particle dimensions and fractal geometry, respectively.
Technical Paper
Jinyu Zhu, Kyeong Lee, Alexander Panov, Jill Akers, Craig Habeger
The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Technical Paper
Kyeong Ook Lee, Jinyu Zhu
The physical and morphological properties of the particulate matter emitted from a 1.7-liter light-duty diesel engine were characterized by observing its evolution in size and fractal geometry along the exhaust system. A common-rail direct-injection diesel engine, the exhaust system of which was equipped with a turbocharger, EGR, and two oxidation catalysts, was powered with a California low-sulfur diesel fuel at various engine-operating conditions. A unique thermophoretic sampling system, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and customized image processing/data acquisition systems were key instruments that were used for the collection of particulate matter, subsequent imaging of particle morphology, and detailed analysis of particle dimensions and fractal geometry, respectively. The measurements were carried out at four different positions along the exhaust pipe.
Technical Paper
Kyeong Ook Lee, Jinyu Zhu, Stephen Ciatti, Ahmet Yozgatligil, Mun Young Choi
The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads.
Technical Paper
Choongsik Bae, Jun Yu, Jinsuk Kang, Jangsik Kong, Kyeong Ook Lee
Diesel injections with various nozzle geometries were tested to investigate the spray characteristics by optical imaging techniques. Sac-nozzle and VCO nozzle with single guided needle coupled with rotary-type mechanical pump were compared in terms of macroscopic spray development and microscopic behavior. These nozzles incorporated with common-rail system were tested to see the effect of high pressure injection. Detailed investigation into spray characteristics from the holes of VCO nozzles, mostly with double guided needle, was performed. A variety of injection hole geometries were tested and compared to give tips on better injector design. Different hole sizes and taper ratio, represented as K factor, were studied through comprehensive spray imaging techniques. Global characteristics of a diesel spray, such as spray penetration, spray angle and its pattern, were observed from macroscopic images.
Technical Paper
Kyeong Ook Lee, Roger Cole, Raj Sekar, Mun Young Choi, Jinyu Zhu, Jinsuk Kang, Choongsik Bae
A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Viewing 1 to 16 of 16