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Viewing 1 to 12 of 12
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1273
Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Bolon, Kevin Newman, Jeff Cherry
As part of an ongoing assessment of the potential for reducing greenhouse emissions of light-duty vehicles, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adopting an updated methodology for applying the results of full vehicle simulations to the range of vehicles across the entire fleet. The key elements of the methodology update, responsive to stakeholder input, include greater transparency in the process used for determining the values of technology effectiveness that are used in EPA’s fleet compliance modeling with more direct incorporation of full vehicle simulation results. This paper begins by summarizing the methodology, presented more fully in a companion paper, for representing existing technology implementations using ALPHA full vehicle simulation for each vehicle in the baseline fleet.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1268
Kevin Bolon, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Brandon mikkelsen, Aaron Hula, Anthony Neam
In order to support an evaluation of the appropriate level of national greenhouse gas standards for light duty vehicles, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is conducting a continuing assessment of advanced emissions-reducing technologies. A reliable evaluation of the feasibility of improving the current fleet using advanced technologies relies on an accurate characterization of the technologies that have already been applied to the fleet, including not only a notation of the vehicle characteristics and presence of physical hardware, but also a consideration of how a particular technology implementation influences the potential for further emissions reductions. By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1412
Paul Dekraker, Daniel Barba, Andrew Moskalik, Karla Butters
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected a variety of engine and vehicle test data for use in assessing the effectiveness of new automotive technologies in meeting greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emission standards, along with monitoring their behavior in real world operation. EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate GHG emissions from vehicles using various combinations of advanced technologies and has been refined using data from tests conducted at EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory. This paper describes EPA’s process of constructing full engine maps from engine dynamometer test data for use in ALPHA or other full vehicle simulation models. The paper reviews how EPA uses available data, both steady state and transient, to characterize different operating conditions, and combining them to construct a map suitable for simulation.
2017-11-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-5020
Mark Stuhldreher, Youngki Kim, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba
Abstract As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0899
Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0910
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1142
Andrew Moskalik, Aaron Hula, Daniel Barba, John Kargul
Abstract In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is refining and revalidating their Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. As part of the validation of ALPHA, the EPA obtained model year 2014 Dodge Chargers equipped with 3.6 liter V6 engines and either a NAG1 five-speed automatic transmission or an 845RE eight-speed automatic transmission.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2850
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Daniel Barba, Jeffra Rockwell
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Advanced Technology (NCAT), located at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been a global leader in development and demonstration of low-greenhouse gas emitting, highly fuel efficient series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain technologies. Advances in these exciting new technologies have stimulated industry to begin manufacturing hydraulic hybrids for both commercial truck and non-road equipment markets. Development activities are continuing for other markets, including light-duty vehicles. Given the commercial emergence of these low-greenhouse gas emitting series hydraulic hybrids, EPA has passed the leadership for further development to industry.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Abstract The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1266
Mark Stuhldreher, Charles Schenk, Jessica Brakora, David Hawkins, Andrew Moskalik, Paul DeKraker
Abstract Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012-2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. One key technology strategy that vehicle manufacturers are using to help comply with GHG and FE standards is to replace naturally aspirated engines with smaller displacement “downsized” boosted engines. In order to understand and measure the effects of this technology, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarked a 2013 Ford Escape with an EcoBoost® 1.6L engine. This paper describes a “tethered” engine dyno benchmarking method used to develop a fuel efficiency map for the 1.6L EcoBoost® engine. The engine was mounted in a dyno test cell and tethered with a lengthened engine wire harness to a complete 2013 Ford Escape vehicle outside the test cell. This method allowed engine mapping with the stock ECU and calibrations.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0868
Michael Woon, Xianke Lin, Andrej Ivanco, Andrew Moskalik, Charles Gray, Zoran Filipi
Energy security and climate change challenges provide a strong impetus for investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) concepts. EVs link two major infrastructures, the transportation and the electric power grid. This provides a chance to bring other sources of energy into transportation, displace petroleum and, with the right mix of power generation sources, reduce CO₂ emissions. The main obstacles for introducing a large numbers of EVs are cost, battery weight, and vehicle range. Battery health is also a factor, both directly and indirectly, by introducing limits on depth of discharge. This paper considers a low-cost path for extending the range of a small urban EV by integrating a parallel hydraulic system for harvesting and reusing braking energy. The idea behind the concept is to avoid replacement of lead-acid or small Li-Ion batteries with a very expensive Li-Ion pack, and instead use a low-cost hydraulic system to achieve comparable range improvements.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0308
Jason Z. Moore, Rodolfo J. Somoza, Albert J. Shih, Zoran Filipi, Andrew J. Moskalik, Neil M. Johnson
The attractiveness of the hydraulic hybrid concept stems from the high power density and efficiency of the pump/motors and the accumulator. This is particularly advantageous in applications to heavy vehicles, as high mass translates into high rates of energy flows through the system. Using dry case hydraulic pumps further improves the energy conversion in the system, as they have 1-4% better efficiency than traditional wet-case pumps. However, evacuation of fluid from the case introduces air bubbles and it becomes imperative to address the deaeration problems. This research develops a bubble elimination efficiency testing apparatus (BEETA) to establish quantitative results characterizing bubble removal from hydraulic fluid in a cyclone deaeration device. The BEETA system mixes the oil and air according to predetermined ratio, passes the mixture through a cyclone deaeration device, and then measures the concentration of air in the exiting fluid.
Viewing 1 to 12 of 12