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Technical Paper

Rear Override Impact Analysis of Full-Size and Light Duty Pickup Trucks for Crash Reconstruction

Abstract The rear override crash behavior of full-size and light duty pickup trucks was examined. A series of ten full-scale, front and rear override impact crash tests were conducted involving four full-size pickup trucks, two light duty pickup trucks, and one sport utility vehicle (SUV). The tests were conducted utilizing a fabricated steel rigid barrier mounted on the front of the Massive Moving Barrier (MMB) test device with full overlap of the test vehicle. Crush ranged from 25.0 to 77.9 inches for impact speeds of 21.7 to 36.0 mph. These override tests on pickups were conducted to provide more basis in an area that is underrepresented in the literature. Each test was documented and measured prior to, and following, the crash test. The stiffness parameters were calculated and presented using constant stiffness, force saturation, and the power law damage models.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicle Global Positioning System Based Telematics Data Characteristics and Limitations

Abstract The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets using telematics is becoming commonplace. Telematics generally refers to the use of wireless devices to transmit data in real time back to an organization. When tied to the GPS system telematics can be used to track fleet vehicle movements, and other parameters. GPS tracking can assist in developing more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS based fleet telematics data is also useful for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite the advantages for fleet management, there are limitations in the logged data for position and speed that may affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of traffic collisions.
Technical Paper

Medium Duty North American Delivery Van Frontal Barrier Crash Test Data for Crash Reconstruction

Abstract Traditional accident reconstruction analysis methodologies include the study of the crush-energy relationship of vehicles. By analyzing the measured crush from a vehicle involved in a real world accident and comparing it to a test vehicle with a known energy, from a crash test, the real world vehicle's damage energy can be evaluated. In addition, the change-in-velocity (Delta-V) can be calculated. The largest source of publicly available crash tests is from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). NHTSA conducts numerous Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) compliance and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) testing for many passenger vehicles for sale in the United States.
Journal Article

Timing and Synchronization of the Event Data Recorded by the Electronic Control Modules of Commercial Motor Vehicles - DDEC V

It is well recognized that Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) technology has been incorporated in the Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) on many on-highway commercial motor vehicles. The dynamic time-series data recorded by these HVEDRs typically include vehicle speed, engine speed, brake and clutch pedal status, and accelerator pedal position. With specific respect to Detroit Diesel ECMs, data are recorded surrounding certain events at a rate of 1.0 Hz. In this research, controlled testing was conducted to determine the time differences between the values being generated by the sourcing sensors and the interpreted data being broadcast on the vehicle's SAE J1939 controller area network (CAN). To accomplish this, raw sensor data as provided to the ECM was monitored, as were the subsequent J1939 CAN transmissions from the ECM.
Journal Article

Data Sources and Analysis of a Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder – V-MAC III

Heavy trucks can have the capability to record vehicle status and performance data. In many applications, this capability is intrinsic to the powerplant’s electronic controls. However little information has been published regarding Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) data obtained from Mack trucks equipped with the V-MAC vehicle electronic control units. This study is focused on data from Mack trucks and the influence of wheel slip on the HVEDR-reported vehicle speed. Additionally, the influence of variables such as initial speed and loaded condition are discussed. A late model Class 8 Mack was instrumented with a calibrated data acquisition package (DAQ) and put through a series of tests so that the HVEDR data could be compared to the data collected by the DAQ.
Journal Article

Modeling of Truck-Car Sideswipe Collisions Using Lug Patterns

Vehicle to vehicle sideswipe collisions may involve contact between a vehicle body and a contacting vehicle's rotating wheels, tires and lug nuts. During a sideswipe collision between a truck and an automobile it is not uncommon to see lug marks in the shape of consecutive damage loops or strikes on the side of the impacted vehicle. The damage loops or strikes are generated by the protruding lug nuts of the truck wheel as it passes by the impacted vehicle at a shallow angle. Additionally, rubber transfers due to contact with the tire sidewall and metal scraping from the wheel rim also leave distinctive shapes on the sides of the contacted vehicle body. The tire, rim, lug nut markings and associated damage manifest themselves as a special case of the epitrochoid and can be geometrically and mathematically described. Presented is a derivation of the equations that govern the lug, rim and tire positions and relative motions.

Event Data Recorders

This book contains 28 landmark papers, providing a comprehensive look at event data recorder (EDR) technology for cars, light trucks, and heavy vehicles. By collecting EDR data, vehicle safety trends can be established, providing car companies, researchers, and regulators with science-based methods to better understand vehicle crashes. In addition to classic and cutting-edge papers, the book features insightful materials on the new National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Final Rule on Event Data Recorders (49 CFR, Part 563), including the rule itself, a summary, and the response to petitions for reconsideration.
Technical Paper

Bulb Usage Analysis of LED-Type Automotive Lighting

The technology of exterior automotive lighting is undergoing the first major change in a half-century. Manufacturers of road vehicles, including motorcycles, are increasingly using Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps in the place of incandescent light bulbs in exterior lighting applications, including brake lamps, turn signals and parking lamps. Analysis of incandescent bulb filaments has been well documented (References 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7), and is a well-accepted practice in accident analysis. But little appears to be known about how, or even if, LED lamps respond to the forces of acceleration or direct-impact events to provide a “record” of the state of the lamp at the moment of an accident event. This project examined the responses of lighted and unlighted LEDs to both acceleration and direct impact events for indications of their state of operation when damaged.