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Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from a Waste Hauler Equipped with a Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine on Different Fuel Compositions

Abstract We assessed gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a current technology stoichiometric natural gas waste hauler equipped with a 2011 model year 8.9L Cummins Westport ISL-G engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalyst (TWC). Testing was performed on five fuels with varying Wobbe and methane numbers over the William H. Martin Refuse Truck Cycle. The results showed lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions for the low methane fuels (i.e., natural gas fuels with a relatively low methane content) for the transport and curbside cycles. Total hydrocarbon (THC) and methane (CH4) emissions did not show any consistent fuel trends. Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions showed a trend of higher emissions for the fuels containing higher levels of NMHCs. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions showed a trend of higher emissions for the low methane fuels.
Technical Paper

Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Performance of a Class 8 Conventional and Hybrid Truck

Abstract Emissions, fuel economy, and performance are determined over a light and a heavy driving cycle designed to represent the vehicles in-use driving patterns. The vehicles are 2010 class 8 Freightliner tractor trucks equipped with Cummins engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter emission control systems. The hybrid has lower carbon dioxide emissions, better fuel economy, and nitrogen oxide emissions statistically the same as the conventional. The CO emissions are well below the standards for both vehicles, but they are higher from the hybrid. The higher CO emissions for the hybrid are primarily related to the cooling of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the standard 20 minute key-off soak between repeats of the driving cycles. With a 1 minute key-off soak the CO emissions from the hybrid are negative.
Technical Paper

Determination of Suspended Exhaust PM Mass for Light-Duty Vehicles

Abstract This study provides one of the first evaluations of the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method in comparison with the current gravimetric method for measuring particulate matter (PM) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The IPSD method combines particle size distributions with size dependent particle effective density to determine mass concentrations of suspended particles. The method allows for simultaneous determination of particle mass, particle surface area, and particle number concentrations. It will provide a greater understanding of PM mass emissions at low levels, and therefore has the potential to complement the current gravimetric method at low PM emission levels. Six vehicles, including three gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicles, two port fuel injected (PFI) vehicles, and one diesel vehicle, were tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a light-duty chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions from Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Powered Vehicles

Abstract Engine manufacturers have explored many routes to reducing the emissions of harmful pollutants and conserving energy resources, including development of after treatment systems to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the engine exhaust, using alternative fuels, and using alternative fuels with after treatment systems. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one alternative fuel in use and this paper will discuss emission measurements for several LPG vehicles. Regulated emissions were measured for five school buses, one box truck, and two small buses over a cold start Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (CS_UDDS), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Central Business District (CBD) cycle. In general, there were no significant differences in the gas phase emissions between the UDDS and the CBD test cycles. For the CS-UDDS cycle the total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are higher than they are from the UDDS cycle.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Impacts of Biofuels on Emissions for a California Certified Diesel Fuel from Heavy-Duty Engines

The impact of biodiesel and new generation biofuels on emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel as a base fuel. This study was performed on two heavy-duty diesel engines, a 2006 engine and a diesel particle filter (DPF) equipped 2007 engine, on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy-based and animal-based biodiesel, renewable diesel fuel, and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel were evaluated at blend levels ranging from 5 to 100%. Consistent with previous studies, particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions generally showed increasing reductions with increasing biodiesel and renewable/GTL diesel fuel blend levels for the non-DPF equipped engine. The levels of these reductions were generally comparable to those found in previous studies performed using more typical Federal diesel fuels.
Journal Article

Influence of Different Natural Gas Blends on the Regulated Emissions, Particle Number and Size Distribution Emissions from a Refuse Hauler Truck

Natural gas is a potential alternative to conventional liquid fuels for use in automotive internal combustion engines. The primary goal of this study is to understand how gas composition changes might impact the performance or emissions of a natural gas vehicle or engine. For this study, a waste hauler truck equipped with a 2001 Cummins 8.3L C Gas Plus lean burn spark-ignited engine and an oxidation catalyst was operated on the William H. Martin Refuse Truck Cycle (RTC). This cycle was developed to simulate waste hauler operation and consists of a transport segment, a curbside pickup segment, and a compaction segment.
Technical Paper

Comparison of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic PM Sensor with Laboratory Instruments Using a 2009 Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle

EmiSense Technologies, LLC ( is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
Journal Article

On-Road Evaluation of a PEMS for Measuring Gaseous In-Use Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle

On-road comparisons were made between a federal reference method mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) and a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) to support validation of the engine “Not To Exceed” (NTE) emissions design and to evaluate the accuracy of PEMS. Three different brake specific emissions calculation equations (methods) were used as part of this research, with method one directly using engine speed and torque, and methods two and three including ECM fuel consumption and carbon balance fuel consumption. The brake specific NOx emissions for the particular PEMS unit utilized in this program were consistently higher than those for the MEL. The brake specific (bs) NOx NTE deltas were +0.63±0.31 g/kW-h (0.47±0.23 g/hp-h), +0.55±0.17 g/kW-h (0.41±0.13 g/hp-h), and +0.54±0.17g/kW-h (0.40±0.13g/hp-h) for methods one, two, and three respectively.
Technical Paper

Emissions Correlation Between a Partial-Flow Diluter and The Full-Flow Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for a Heavy-Duty Vehicle Under Steady-State Operation

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) examined the performance of a Partial Flow Sampling System (PFSS) against a reference Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system in measuring emissions from a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) during dynamometer testing at CARB's Stockton Heavy-Duty Emissions Laboratory (SL). The SL PFSS system is a Sierra BG-2 system that uses flow-based (rather than CO2-based) dilution. The CVS system uses the University of California, Riverside's (UCR) Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). The test vehicle was a 2000 model-year HD tractor powered by a CAT C-15 engine. Exhaust samples were collected simultaneously with the SL and MEL systems and analyzed for total particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons (THC). The samples were taken during steady-state vehicle operation. Each test mode was repeated seven times in each of two patterns: consecutive and sequential.