Viewing 1 to 24 of 24
Journal Article
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte, Gian Marco Bianchi, Davide Moro
Knocking combustions heavily influence the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines, limiting the compression ratio and sometimes preventing the use of Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) Spark Advance (SA). A detailed analysis of knocking events can help in improving the engine performance and diagnostic strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation for the analysis and prediction of the combustion process. The standard 3D CFD approach based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations allows the analysis of the average engine cycle. However, the knocking phenomenon is heavily affected by the Cycle to Cycle Variation (CCV): the effects of CCV on knocking combustions are then taken into account, maintaining a RANS CFD approach, while representing a complex running condition, where knock intensity changes from cycle to cycle.
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola, Davide Moro
The increasing request for pollutant emissions reduction spawned a great deal of research in the field of innovative combustion methodologies, that allow obtaining a significant reduction both in particulate matter and NOx emissions. Unfortunately, due to their nature, these innovative combustion strategies are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions. Therefore, in order to obtain a stable combustion, a closed-loop combustion control methodology is needed. Prior research has demonstrated that a closed-loop combustion control strategy can be based on the real-time analysis of in-cylinder pressure trace, that provides important information about the combustion process, such as Start (SOC) and Center of combustion (CA50), pressure peak location and torque delivered by each cylinder. Nevertheless, cylinder pressure sensors on-board installation is still uncommon, due to problems related to unsatisfactory measurement long term reliability and cost.
Journal Article
Nicolo Cavina, Andrea Businaro, Davide Moro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini, Domenico Papaleo, Mario Picerno
Abstract The next steps of the current European and US legislation, EURO 6c and LEV III, and the incoming new test cycles will impose more severe restrictions on pollutant emissions for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. In particular, soot emission limits will represent a challenge for the development of this kind of engine concept, if injection and after-treatment systems costs are to be minimized at the same time. The paper illustrates the results obtained by means of a numerical and experimental approach, in terms of soot emissions and combustion stability assessment and control, especially during catalyst-heating conditions, where the main soot quantity in the test cycle is produced. A number of injector configurations has been designed by means of a CAD geometrical analysis, considering the main effects of the spray target on wall impingement.
Journal Article
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Enrico Corti, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare
The optimization of turbocharging systems for automotive applications has become crucial in order to increase engine performance and meet the requirements for pollutant emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Unfortunately, performing an optimal turbocharging system control is very difficult, mainly due to the fact that the flow through compressor and turbine is highly unsteady, while only steady flow maps are usually provided by the manufacturer. For these reasons, one of the most important quantities to be used onboard for optimal turbocharger system control is the rotational speed fluctuation, since it provides information both on turbocharger operating point and on the energy of the unsteady flow in the intake and exhaust circuits. This work presents a methodology that allows determining the instantaneous turbocharger rotational speed through a proper frequency processing of the signal coming from one accelerometer mounted on the turbocharger compressor.
Technical Paper
Gabriele Vandi, Davide Moro, Fabrizio Ponti, Riccardo Parenti, Gianpiero Einaudi
This paper presents a 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model. Despite numerous software are nowadays commercially available, the model presented in this paper has been built starting from a blank sheet because the goal of the authors was to realize a model suitable for real-time simulation, compatible with the computational power of typical electronic control units, for on-board applications. In order to achieve this objective a complete vehicle dynamics simulation model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment: having a complete knowledge of the model's structure, it is possible to adapt its complexity to the computational power of the hardware used to run the simulation, a crucial feature to achieve real-time execution in actual ECUs.
Technical Paper
Nicolo Cavina, Giorgio Mancini, Enrico Corti, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola
While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions. In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Enrico Corti, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare
Over the past years, policies affecting pollutant emissions control for Diesel engines have become more and more restrictive. In order to meet such requirements, innovative combustion control methods have currently become a key factor. Several studies demonstrate that the desired pollutant emission reduction can be achieved through a closed-loop combustion control based on in-cylinder pressure processing. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cylinder pressure sensors for on-board application have been recently developed, large scale deployment of such systems is currently hindered by unsatisfactory long term reliability and high costs. Whereas both the accuracy and the reliability of pressure measurement could be improved in future years, pressure sensors would still be a considerable part of the cost of the entire engine management system.
Technical Paper
Nicolo Cavina, Davide Moro, Stefano Sgatti, Filippo Cavanna
In order to reduce both polluting emissions and fuel costs, many countries allow mixing ethanol to gasoline either in fixed percentages or in variable percentages. The resulting fuel is labeled E10 or E22, where the number specifies the ethanol percentage. This operation significantly changes way the stoichiometric value, which is the air-to-fuel mass ratio theoretically needed to completely burn the mixture. Ethanol concentration must be correctly estimated by the Engine Management System to optimally control exhaust emissions, fuel economy and engine performance. In fact, correct fuel quality recognition allows estimating the actual stoichiometric value, thus allowing the catalyst system to operate at maximum efficiency in any engine working point. Moreover, also other essential engine control functions should be adapted in real time by taking into account the quality of the fuel that is being used.
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare
Future regulations on pollutant emissions will impose a drastic cut on Diesel engines out-emissions. For this reason, the development of closed-loop combustion control algorithms has become a key factor in modern Diesel engine management systems. Diesel engines out-emissions can be reduced through a highly premixed combustion portion in low and medium load operating conditions. Since low-temperature premixed combustions are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions, the first aspect to be considered in newly developed Diesel engine control strategies is the control of the center of combustion. In order to achieve the target center of combustion, conventional combustion control algorithms correct the measured value varying main injection timing. A further reduction in engine-out emissions can be obtained applying an appropriate injection strategy.
Technical Paper
Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Gabriele Serra, Fabrizio Ponti
In modern Diesel engine control strategies the guideline is to perform an efficient combustion control, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions. Innovative control algorithms for optimal combustion positioning require the on-board evaluation of a large number of quantities. In order to perform closed-loop combustion control, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is MFB50, i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel mass burned within an engine cycle is reached. Furthermore, MFB50 allows determining the kind of combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber, therefore knowing such quantity is crucial for newly developed low temperature combustion applications (such as HCCI, HCLI, distinguished by very low NOx emissions). The aim of this work is to develop a virtual combustion sensor, that provides MFB50 estimated value as a function of quantities that can be monitored real-time by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Gabriele Serra
Proper design of the combustion phase has always been crucial for Diesel engine control systems. Modern engine control strategies' growing complexity, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions, requires on-board estimation of a growing number of quantities. In order to feedback a control strategy for optimal combustion positioning, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is the angular position where 50% of fuel mass burned over an engine cycle is reached (MFB50), because it provides important information about combustion effectiveness (a key factor, for example, in HCCI combustion control). In modern Diesel engines, injection patterns are designed with many degrees of freedom, such as the position and the duration of each injection, rail pressure or EGR rate. In this work a model of the combustion process has been developed in order to evaluate the energy release within the cylinder as a function of the injection parameters.
Technical Paper
Davide Moro, Nicolò Cavina, Igor Trivić, Vittorio Ravaglioli
In order to increase overall energy efficiency of road vehicles, new systems that are able to recover vehicle's kinetic energy usually lost in dissipating process of frictional braking are being developed. This study was done to look at the effects of integrating Mechanical Flywheel-based Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) into an automotive vehicle. Possible system architectures, due to different connection point of the KERS into the vehicle driveline, were proposed and investigated. Interaction of the system main components (IC engine, vehicle Gearbox, KERS subsystems) was analyzed and explained. In particular, three plots are proposed to introduce a graphical representation that can help the project manager to understand the effect of different parameter values related to the main system components on the overall system behavior during energy transfer from the vehicle to KERS and back.
Technical Paper
Enrico Corti, Francesco Migliore, Davide Moro, Paolo Capozzella, Michele Pagano
This paper describes the development of a mathematical model which allows the simulation of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), the transmission and the vehicle dynamics of a motor vehicle equipped with a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) system. The aim of this work is to realize a simulation tool that is able to evaluate the performance and the operating conditions of the ICE, once it is installed on a given vehicle. Since the simulation has to be run in real-time for Hardware In the Loop (HIL) applications, a zero-dimensional (filling and emptying) model is used for modeling the cylinder thermodynamics and the intake and exhaust manifolds. The combustion is modeled by means of single zone model, with the fuel burning rate described by Wiebe functions. The gas proprieties depend on temperature and chemical composition of the gas, which are evaluated at each crank-angle.
Technical Paper
Davide Moro, Enrico Corti, Matteo De Cesare, Gabriele Serra
The present paper is about the rotational speed measurement of an automotive turbocharger, obtained starting from the analysis of acoustic emission produced by an engine, which have been acquired by a microphone placed under the vehicle hood. In the first part of the paper several upgrades to increase the overall performance of the speed extraction algorithm are presented and discussed, starting from the basic algorithm that has already demonstrated the methodology capability in a previous paper. In particular it has been considered a different signal sampling rate in order to extend the applicability of the methodology to a wider range of engines. Also a new processing procedure has been defined to increase the capability of the algorithm to tune on the frequency signal.
Technical Paper
Nicolò Cavina, Davide Moro, Matteo De Cesare, Gabriele Serra
The paper presents a non-intrusive, indirect and low-cost methodology for a real time on-board measurement of an automotive turbocharger rotational speed. In the first part of the paper the feasibility to gather information on the turbocharger speed trend is demonstrated by comparing the time-frequency analysis of the acoustic signal with the direct measurement obtained by an optical sensor facing the compressor blades, mounted in the compressor housing of a spark ignited turbocharged engine. In the second part of the paper, a real time algorithm, to be implemented in the engine control unit, is proposed. The algorithm is able to tune on the turbocharger revolution frequency and to follow it in order to extract the desired speed information. The frequency range containing the turbocharger acoustic frequency can be set utilizing a raw estimation of the compressor speed, derived by its characteristic map.
Technical Paper
Enrico Corti, Davide Moro, Luca Solieri
Combustion control is one of the key factors to obtain better performance and lower pollutants emissions, for diesel, spark ignition and HCCI engines. This paper describes a real-time indicating system based on commercially available hardware and software, which allows the real-time evaluation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) and Rate of Heat Release (ROHR) related parameters, such as 50%MFB, cylinder by cylinder, cycle by cycle. This kind of information is crucial for engine mapping and can be very important also for rapid control prototyping purposes. The project objective is to create a system able to process in-cylinder pressure signals in the angular domain without the need for crankshaft encoder, for example using as angular reference the signal coming from a standard equipment sensor wheel. This feature can be useful both for test bench and on-board tests.
Technical Paper
Enrico Corti, Davide Moro
Gasoline engines can be affected, under certain operating conditions, by knocking combustions: this is still a factor limiting engines performance, and an accurate control is required for those engines working near the knock limit, in order to avoid permanent damage. HCCI engines also need a sophisticated combustion monitoring methodology, especially for high BMEP operating conditions. Many methodologies can be found in the literature to recognize potentially dangerous combustions, based on the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure signal. The signal is usually filtered and processed, in order to obtain an index that is then be compared to the knock threshold level. Thresholds setting is a challenging task, since usually indexes are not intrinsically related to the damages caused by abnormal combustions events. Furthermore, their values strongly depend on the engine operating conditions (speed and load), and thresholds must therefore vary with respect to speed and load.
Technical Paper
Nicolò Cavina, Davide Moro, Luca Poggio, Daniele Zecchetti, Riccardo Nanni, Andrea Gelmetti
The paper presents the main results of a research activity focused on the analysis, development, and real time implementation of a closed-loop, individual cylinder combustion control system, based on ion sensing technology. The innovative features of the proposed control system consist of extracting combustion quality related information from the ion current signal, and of using such information, together with pre-defined look-up-tables, for feedback control of the spark advance throughout the entire engine operating range. In particular, the ion current signal processing algorithm that is carried out in real-time, initially determines whether knocking is affecting or not the actual combustion process.
Technical Paper
Nicolò Cavina, Enrico Corti, Giorgio Minelli, Davide Moro, Luca Solieri
Gasoline engines can be affected, under certain operating conditions, by knocking combustions, which can result in serious engine damage. Specific power and efficiency are influenced by factors such as compression ratio and spark advance regulation, that modify the combustion development over the crank angle: the trade-off between performance and the risk of irreversible damages is still a key factor in the design of both high-performance (racing) and low-consumption engines. New generation detection systems, especially based on ionization current technology, allow aggressive advance mapping and control, and future equipment, such as low-cost in-cylinder pressure transducers, will allow following that trend. Also HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engines need a sophisticated combustion monitoring methodology, since increasing BMEP levels in HCCI mode force the combustion to approach the knocking operation.
Technical Paper
Davide Moro, Fabrizio Ponti, Giovanni Cipolla, Marco Mammetti, Luca Poggio
The optimization of a high performance engine in order to achieve maximum power at full load and high speed can cause an unstable behavior when the engine is running at different conditions, thus making a robust combustion diagnosis for on board diagnostic EOBD/OBD II purposes (misfiring detection) particularly challenging. In fact, when a misfire occurs, its detection can be critical because of the high background noise due to high indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) cyclic variability. A partial reduction of the high IMEP variability had been achieved by optimizing control parameters of a new prototype high performance V8/4.2 l engine. Spark advance and VVT phasing maps had in fact been re-designed based on in-cylinder pressure variability (cycle by cycle and cylinder by cylinder) analysis.
Technical Paper
Enrico Corti, Davide Moro
To establish a fair competition between racing vehicles is not an easy task, if different types of engine are allowed to participate (within the same class). In the Motorsports world there are several Championships where the regulations leave to the project manager substantial freedom in the vehicle-engine layout definition: The 2002 World Offshore Class I Championship (WOCC) seems to be an excellent example, since both gasoline and diesel (naturally aspirated and turbocharged) engines are admitted to race. The paper presents a power output comparison method that could be useful both for the organizers to establish a fair competition as well as for the racing engineers to decide what's the optimal layout. Since the analysis regards the maximum power, BMEP and engine speed have to be evaluated under such condition for the engines to be compared.
Technical Paper
Davide Moro, Fabrizio Ponti
The paper presents the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the Wide-Open-Throttle (WOT) torque production when the engine is running free. Under such conditions the engine speed shows a sudden increase due to the high engine torque production associated with the WOT conditions, and to the absence of a load connected to the engine. The acoustic emission of the engine contains information related to this speed increase and thus to the engine torque production. The methodology unveils the information contained in the engine acoustic emission to estimate the torque produced under WOT operating conditions. This estimation can be performed without the need of coupling the engine to a brake, and does not require installing any additional sensor. For this reason the approach here presented could be very useful for engine testing at the end of the assembly line.
Technical Paper
Davide Moro, Fabrizio Ponti, Gabriele Serra
The large number of mechanical, electro-magnetic and oleo-dynamic systems for variable valve actuation developed by automotive suppliers demonstrates the great interest that is being devoted to their potential application on internal combustion engines. In the paper, a possible strategy to realize an original engine load control by means of both intake and exhaust variable valve timing (VVT) is briefly presented and the thermodynamic analysis of the performance obtainable with this solution is carried out. The peculiarity of this strategy is that it is possible to directly recirculate the desired mass of exhaust gas with less limitation with respect to the external duct architecture.
Technical Paper
Piero Azzoni, Giorgio Minelli, Davide Moro, Massimo Ceccarani, Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Viewing 1 to 24 of 24


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