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Viewing 1 to 27 of 27
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0537
Murat Ates, Ronald D. Matthews, Matthew J. Hall
Abstract A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0339
Aimon Allouache, Smith Leggett, Matthew J. Hall, Ming Tu, Chad Baker, Haiyan Fateh
Abstract The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1644
Ryan Valentino, Matthew J. Hall, Thomas Briggs
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used to recover waste heat from the exhaust of a diesel and a spark ignition engine for electric power generation was modeled. The design elements of the ORC incorporated into the thermodynamic model were based on an experimental study performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which a regenerative organic Rankine cycle system was designed, assembled and integrated into the exhaust of a 1.9 liter 4-cylinder automotive turbo-diesel. This engine was operated at a single fixed-load point at which Rankine cycle state point temperatures as well as the electrical power output of an electric generator coupled to a turbine that expanded R245fa refrigerant were measured. These data were used for model calibration.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0647
Timothy T. Diller, Jude Osara, Matthew J. Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
An electronic particulate matter sensor (EPMS) developed at the University of Texas was used to characterize exhaust gases from a single-cylinder diesel engine and a light-duty diesel vehicle. Measurements were made during transient tip-in events with multiple sensor configurations in the single-cylinder engine. The sensor was operated in two modes: one with the electric field energized, and the other with no electric field present. In each mode, different characteristic signals were produced in response to a tip-in event, highlighting the two primary mechanisms of sensor operation. The sensor responded to both the natural charge of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from the engine, and was also found to create a signal by charging neutral particles. The characteristics of the two mechanisms of operation are discussed as well as their implications on the placement and operation of the sensor.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0943
Timothy T. Diller, Ronald D. Matthews, Matthew J. Hall, Timothy H. DeFries, Brent Shoffner
Trucks operating in inter-modal (drayage) operation in and around port and rail terminals, are responsible for a large proportion of the emissions of NOX, which are problematic for the air quality of the Houston and Dallas/Ft. Worth metro areas. A standard test cycle, called the Texas Dray Truck Cycle, was developed to represent the operation of heavy-duty diesel trucks in dray operations. The test cycle reflects the substantial time spent at idle (~45%) and the high intensity of the on-road portions. This test cycle was then used in the SAE J1321 test protocol to evaluate the effect on fuel consumption and NOX emissions of retrofitting dray trucks with light-weight, low-rolling resistance wide-single tires. In on-track testing, a reduction in fuel consumption of 8.7% was seen, and NOX emissions were reduced by 3.8% with the wide single tires compared to the conventional tires.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1065
Timothy T. Diller, Matthew J. Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
This paper presents the latest developments in the design and performance of an electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) and suitable, with further development, for applications in active engine control of PM emissions. The sensor detects the carbonaceous mass component of PM in the exhaust and has a time-resolution less than 20 (ms), allowing PM levels to be quantified for engine transients. Sample measurements made with the sensor in the exhaust of a single-cylinder light duty diesel engine are presented for both steady-state and transient operations: a steady-state correlation with gravimetric filter measurements is presented, and the sensor response to rapid increases in PM emission during engine transients is shown for several different tip-in (momentary increases in fuel delivery) conditions.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0652
Alejandro J. Martinez, Preston S. Wilson, Matthew J. Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
Combustion chamber pressure measurement in engines via a passage is an old technique that is still widely used in engine research. This paper presents improved passage designs for an off-set electrode spark plug designed to accept a pressure transducer. The spark plug studied was the Champion model 304-063A. Two acoustic models were developed to compute the resonance characteristics. The new designs have a resonance frequency in a range higher than the fundamental frequency expected from knock so that the signal can be lowpass filtered to remove the resonance and not interfere with pressure signal components associated with combustion phenomena. Engine experiments verified the spark plug resonance behavior. For the baseline engine operating condition approximately 50 of 100 cycles had visible passage resonance in the measured pressure traces, at an average frequency of 8.03 kHz.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3792
Alok Warey, Matthew J. Hall
A new electronic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) emitted in engine exhaust. The sensor is approximately the size of a standard automotive spark-plug or lambda sensor and can be mounted directly in the engine exhaust. It consists of a pair of closely spaced electrically isolated electrodes that protrude into the exhaust flow. One electrode is given a voltage bias of 1000 V while the other is the signal electrode. The sensor is capable of providing cycle-resolved feedback on the carbonaceous PM concentration in the exhaust to the engine control unit (ECU), thereby enabling real-time control of engine operating parameters to lower PM emissions. This paper reports the results of an experimental study of various parameters that affect the performance of the electronic sensor.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3873
Alejandro Camacho, Matthew J. Hall
A piezoelectric sensor to measure the mass of fuel that impacts the piston top during injection in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was developed. The sensor used a 3.18 cm (1.25-inch) long, 0.318 cm (0.125-inch) wide piezo bending motor. The principle of operation is based on the change in natural vibration frequency that occurs to the cantilever piezo beam due to a change in its mass caused by the presence of liquid fuel on its surface. An electrical impulse is used to set the piezo element in vibration after which the natural vibrational frequency is measured using a FFT analyzer. The concept was evaluated outside the engine and calibrated for the frequency shift as a function of the weight of liquid on the bending element. The change in the frequency was found to be approximately proportional to the liquid mass on the sensor. The piston top of the engine was modified to accommodate the sensor on its surface.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0231
Myung Jun Lee, Matt Hall, Ofodike A. Ezekoye, Ronald D. Matthews
Time-resolved current and voltage measurements for an inductive automotive spark system were made. Also presented are measurements of the total energy delivered to the spark gap. The measurements were made in air for a range of pressures from 1-18 atm, at ambient temperatures. The measured voltage and current characteristics were found to be a function of many ignition parameters; some of these include: spark gap distance, internal resistance of the spark plug and high tension wire, and pressure. The voltages presented were measured either at the top of the spark plug or at the spark gap. The measurements were made at different time resolutions to more accurately resolve the voltage and current behavior throughout the discharge process. This was necessary because the breakdown event occurs on a time scale much shorter than the arc and glow phases.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0252
Sreepati Hari, Myung Jun Lee, Matt Hall, Ofodike Ezekoye, Ronald D. Matthews
As natural gas engines are designed to operate leaner and with increased boost pressure, durability of the spark plugs becomes problematic. Among the various new ignition devices that have been considered to solve some of the problems facing spark plugs, railplugs appear to hold clear advantages in some areas. There are two types of railplugs: coaxial rail and parallel rail. This paper reports the results of an experimental study of various parameters that affect the performance of parallel railplugs. Their performance was quantified by the distance that the arc traveled along the rails from the initiation point. Travel along the rails is thought to be an important performance metric because rail-travel limits excessive local wear and produces a distributed ignition source which can potentially reduce mixture inhomogeneity induced ignition problems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0249
H. Gao, O. A. Ezekoye, M. J. Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
It is a very challenging problem to reliably ignite extremely lean mixtures, especially for the low speed, high load conditions of large-bore natural gas engines. If these engines are to be use for the distributed power generation market, it will require operation with higher boost pressures and even leaner mixtures. Both place greater demands on the ignition system. The railplug is a very promising ignition system for lean burn natural gas engines with its high-energy deposition and high velocity plasma arc. It requires care to properly design railplugs for this new application, however. For these engines, in-cylinder pressure and mixture temperature are very high at the time of ignition due to the high boost pressure. Hot spots may exist on the electrodes of the ignitor, causing pre-ignition problems. A heat transfer model is proposed in this paper to aid the railplug design. The electrode temperature was measured in an operating natural gas engine.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1724
Ronald D. Matthews, Matt Hall, Joe Anthony, Rick Baker, Jolanda Prozzi, Randy Machemehl, Terry Ullman, Don Lewis
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an ultra-low-sulfur, low aromatic, high cetane number diesel fuel (TxLED, Texas Low Emission Diesel) in June 2003. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness to reduce emissions and influence fuel economy of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel used in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel in their equipment. One off-road engine, two single-axle dump trucks, and two tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included newer electronically-controlled diesels. The off-road engine was tested over the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle or the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2906
Alok Warey, Byron Hendrix, Matthew Hall, Tim Nevius
A new electronic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) emitted in engine exhaust. One application of the sensor could be to provide cycle-resolved feedback on the carbonaceous PM concentration in the exhaust to the engine control unit (ECU), thereby enabling real-time control of engine operating parameters to lower PM emissions. Another promising application is to monitor the performance of particulate traps. The sensor was tested in exhaust flows from a single cylinder diesel engine and from a steady-state acetylene diffusion flame in a flow tunnel. Steady-state engine measurements were made at constant speed and variable load, and transient measurements were performed during engine start-up and accelerations. The sensor response was compared with an opacity meter and with gravimetric filter measurements.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2978
H. Gao, Ronald D. Matthews, M. J. Hall, S. Hari
Ignition of extremely lean or dilute mixtures is a very challenging problem. Therefore, it is essential for the engine development engineer to understand the fundamentals and limitations of existing ignition systems. This paper presents a new railplug ignition concept, a high-energy ignition system, which can enhance ignition of very lean mixtures by means of its high-energy deposition and high velocity jet of the plasma. This paper presents initial results of tests using an inductive ignition system, a capacitor discharge ignition system, and a railplug high-energy ignition system. Discharge characteristics, such as time-resolved voltage, current, and luminous emission were measured. Spark plug and railplug ignition are compared for their effects on combustion stability of a natural gas engine. The results show that railplugs have a very strong arc-phase that can ensure the ignition of very dilute mixtures.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0087
Ronald D. Matthews, Matt Hall, Joe Anthony, Terry Ullman, Don Lewis
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3239
Marcus Ashford, Ronald D. Matthews, Matt Hall, Tom Kiehne, Wen Dai, Eric W. Curtis, George Davis
An On-Board Distillation System (OBDS) was developed to extract, from gasoline, a highly volatile crank fuel that allows the reduction of startup fuel enrichment and significant spark retard during cold starts and warm-up. This OBDS was installed on a 2001 Lincoln Navigator to explore the emissions reductions possible on a large vehicle with a large-displacement engine. The fuel and spark calibration of the PCM were modified to exploit the benefits of the OBDS startup fuel. Three series of tests were performed: (1) measurement of the OBDS fuel composition and distillation curve per ASTM D86, (2) measurement of real-time cold start (20 °C) tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions for the first 20 seconds of engine operation, and (3) FTP drive cycles at 20 °C with engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas-phase species measured each second. Baseline tests were performed using stock PCM calibrations and certification gasoline.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0831
Terrence Alger, Matthew Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
A fiber optic instrumented spark plug was used to make time-resolved measurements of the fuel vapor concentration history near the spark gap in a four-valve DISI engine. Four different bulk flow were investigated. Several early and late injection timings were examined. The fuel concentration at the spark gap was correlated with IMEP. Emissions of CO, HCs, and NOx were related to the type of bulk flow. For both early and late injection the CoVs of fuel concentration were generally lowest for the weakest bulk flow which resulted in a stable stratification. Strong bulk flows convected the inhomogeneities through the measurement area near the spark plug resulting in both large intracycle and cycle-to-cycle variation in equivalence ratio at the time of ignition.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-1140
Alok Warey, Yiqun Huang, Ronald D. Matthews, Matthew Hall, Henry Ng
We have examined the influence of piston wetting on the size distribution and mass of particulate matter (PM) emissions in a SI engine using several different fuels. Piston wetting was isolated as a source of PM emissions by injecting known amounts of liquid fuel onto the piston top using an injector probe. The engine was run predominantly on propane with approximately 10% of the fuel injected as liquid onto the piston. The liquid fuels were chosen to examine the effects of fuel volatility and molecular structure on the PM emissions. A nephelometer was used to characterize the PM emissions. Mass measurements from the nephelometer were compared with gravimetric filter measurements, and particulate size measurements were compared with scanning electron microscope (SEM) photos of particulates captured on filters. The engine was run at 1500 rpm at the Ford world-wide mapping point with an overall equivalence ratio of 0.9.
2001-05-07
Technical Paper
2001-01-1976
Darius Mehta, Terrence Alger, Matthew Hall, Ronald D. Matthews, Henry Ng
A nephelometer system was developed to characterize engine particulate emissions from DISI engines. Results were correlated with images showing the location and history of particulates in the cylinder of an optical engine. The nephelometer's operation is based upon the dependence of scattered laser light on particulate size from a flow sampled from the exhaust of an engine. The nephelometer simultaneously measured the scattered light from angles of 20° to 160° from the forward scattering direction in 4° increments. The angular scattering measurements were then compared with calculations using a Mie scattering code to infer information regarding particulate size. Measurements of particulate mass were made based upon a correlation developed between the scattered light intensity and particulate mass samples trapped in a 0.2-micron filter. Measurements were made in a direct injection single-cylinder spark ignition research engine having a transparent quartz cylinder.
2001-05-07
Technical Paper
2001-01-1921
Matthew J. Hall, Patrick Zuzek, Richard W. Anderson
A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1204
Terrence Alger, Yiqun Huang, Matthew Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
An optical access engine was used to image the liquid film evaporation off the piston of a simulated direct injected gasoline engine. A directional injector probe was used to inject liquid fuel (gasoline, i-octane and n-pentane) directly onto the piston of an engine primarily fueled on propane. The engine was run at idle conditions (750 RPM and closed throttle) and at the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (1500 RPM and 262 kPa BMEP). Mie scattering images show the liquid exiting the injector probe as a stream and directly impacting the piston top. Schlieren imaging was used to show the fuel vaporizing off the piston top late in the expansion stroke and during the exhaust stroke. Previous emissions tests showed that the presence of liquid fuel on in-cylinder surfaces increases engine-out hydrocarbon emissions.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2865
Matthew J. Hall, Patrick Zuzek
A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of exhaust gas recirculated (EGR) into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The EGR mass fraction in the intake manifold is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located 10 cm upstream of the intake valve. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 700 μs (equivalent to 2.5 crank angle degrees) allowing the local EGR concentration throughout the cycle to be measured. Measurements were made with both real and simulated EGR. The EGR flows were introduced at various locations upstream of the probe.
2000-06-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-1905
Terrence Alger, Matthew Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been shown to have much higher engine-out hydrocarbon emissions (HC) than port fuel injected (PFI) engines. A major contribution to the increase in HC emissions is from the in-cylinder surface wetting that occurs as the fuel is injected. A previous study using an optical access engine and a fuel concentration probe demonstrated that the in-cylinder flow field and injection timing have a significant effect on the equivalence ratio at the spark plug. This study continues that work, by using a fast spectroscopic HC emission measurement device (Fast-Spec) to study time-resolved HC emissions from a 4-valve, centrally injected, single cylinder DISI engine. Three flow fields are studied: tumble, reverse tumble and stock. The tumble and reverse tumble flow fields are achieved using shrouded valves. Both early and late start of injection (SOI) timings are investigated.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0590
Jason Ku, Yiqun Huang, Brian Hollowell, Stephen Belle, Ronald D. Matthews, Matt Hall
The University of Texas Ethanol Vehicle Challenge team focused upon cold start/driveability, fuel economy, and emissions reduction for our 1999 Ethanol Vehicle Challenge entry. We replaced or coated all fuel system components that were not ethanol compatible. We used the stock PCM for all control functions except control of a novel cold-start system our team designed. The primary modifications for improved emissions control involved ceramic coating of the exhaust manifolds, use of close-coupled ethanol-specific catalysts, increased EGR for the operating conditions of the five longest cruises on the FTP, and our cold-start system that eliminates the need to overfuel the engine at the beginning of the FTP. This EGR control scheme should also benefit urban fuel economy. Additionally, we eliminated EGR at high load to improve power density.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0533
Terrence Alger, Matthew Hall, Ronald D. Matthews
The effect of the in-cylinder bulk flow on fuel distributions in the cylinder of a motored direct-injection S.I. engine was measured. Five different bulk flows were induced through combinations of shrouded and unshrouded valves, and port deactivation: stock, high tumble, reverse tumble, swirl, and swirl/tumble. Planar Mie scattering was used to observe the fuel spray movement in the centerline plane of a transparent cylinder engine. A fiber optic instrumented spark plug was used to measure the resulting cycle-resolved equivalence ratio in the vicinity of the spark plug. The four-valve engine had the injector located on the cylinder axis; the fiber optic probe was located between the intake valves. Injection timings of 90, 180, and 270 degrees after TDC were examined. Measurements were made at 750 and 1500 rpm with certification gasoline at open throttle conditions. From the images it was found that the type and strength of the bulk flow greatly affected the spray behavior.
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