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Viewing 1 to 20 of 20
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0591
Karan R. Khanse, Eric Pierce, Michael Ng, Saied Taheri
Abstract Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any newly developed model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire simulation design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were used to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0651
Mustafa Ali Arat, Saied Taheri, Edward Holweg
The road profile has been shown to have significant effects on various vehicle conditions including ride, handling, fatigue or even energy efficiency; as a result it has become a variable of interest in the design and control of numerous vehicle parts. In this study, an integrated state estimation algorithm is proposed that can provide continuous information on road elevation and profile variations, primarily to be used in active suspension controls. A novel tire instrumentation technology (smart tire) is adopted together with a sensor couple of wheel attached accelerometer and suspension deflection sensor as observer inputs. The algorithm utilizes an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) structure that provides the sprung and unsprung mass displacements to a sliding-mode differentiator, which then yields to the estimation of road elevations and the corresponding road profile along with the quarter car states.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2292
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Corina Sandu, Saied Taheri
Abstract Safety and minimal transit time are vital during transportation of essential commodities and passengers, especially in winter conditions. Icy roads are the worst driving conditions with the least available friction, leaving valuable cargo and precious human lives at stake. The study investigates the available friction at the tire-ice interface due to changes in key operational parameters. Experimental analysis of tractive performance of tires on ice was carried out indoor, using the terramechanics rig located at the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory (AVDL) at Virginia Tech. The friction-slip ratio curves obtained from indoor testing were inputted into TruckSIM, defining tire behavior for various ice scenarios and then simulating performance of trucks on ice. The shortcomings of simulations in considering the effects of all the operational parameters result in differences between findings of indoor testing and truck performance simulations.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0858
Shahyar Taheri, Corina Sandu, Saied Taheri
Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0885
Mustafa Ali Arat, Saied Taheri
Abstract A vehicle's response is predominately defined by the tire characteristics as they constitute the only contact between the vehicle and the road; and the surface friction condition is the primary attribute that determines these characteristics. The friction coefficient is not directly measurable through any sensor attachments in production-line vehicles. Therefore, current chassis control systems make use of various estimation methods to approximate a value. However a significant challenge is that these schemes require a certain level of perturbation (i.e. excitation by means of braking or traction) from the initial conditions to converge to the expected values; which might not be the case all the time during a regular drive.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0743
Srikanth Sivaramakrishnan, Saied Taheri
This paper outlines the development of a simulation-based process for assessing the handling performance of a given set of tires on a specific vehicle. Based on force and moment data, a Pacejka tire model was developed for each of the five sets of tires used in this study. To begin with, simple handling metrics including under-steer gradient were calculated using cornering stiffness derived from the Pacejka model. This Pacejka tire model was subsequently combined with a 3DOF non-linear vehicle model to create a simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink®. Other handling metrics were calculated based on simulation results to step and sinusoidal (General Motors Company) steering inputs. Calculated performance metrics include yaw velocity overshoot, yaw velocity response time, lateral acceleration response time and steering sensitivity. In addition to this, the phase lag in lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the vehicle to a sinusoidal steering input were also calculated.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0694
Mustafa Ali Arat, Kanwar Singh, Saied Taheri
The effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems soars with the advances in on-board electronics that allows increasingly complex algorithms to be implemented. Numerous studies expose statistical results that underline the rate of reduction in the involvement of the vehicles equipped with such systems in road accidents. These facts clearly indicate how much the current systems have advanced. Nevertheless there are several areas of improvement for these systems, among which utilizing more information about tire-road states (e.g., tire forces, tire slip and slip-angle, surface friction) ranks very high due to the key role tires play in providing directional stability and control. This study introduces the use of an arriving technology, namely the smart tire technology, to estimate and utilize the aforementioned tire-road states along with an optimal tire force allocation scheme for improved vehicle stability.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2016
Mustafa Ali Arat, Kanwar Singh, Saied Taheri
Active safety systems have become an essential part of today's vehicles including SUVs and LTVs. Although they have advanced in many aspects, there are still many areas that they can be improved. Especially being able to obtain information about tire-vehicle states (e.g. tire slip-ratio, tire slip-angle, tire forces, tire-road friction coefficient), would be significant due to the key role tires play in providing directional stability and control. This paper first presents the implementation strategy for a dynamic tire slip-angle estimation methodology using a combination of a tire based sensor and an observer system. The observer utilizes two schemes, first of which employs a Sliding Mode Observer to obtain lateral and longitudinal tire forces. The second step then utilizes the force information and outputs the tire slip-angle using a Luenberger observer and linearized tire model equations.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2014
Kanwar Bharat Singh, Mustafa Ali Arat, Saied Taheri
In the case of modern day vehicle control systems employing a feedback control structure, a real-time estimate of the tire-road contact parameters is invaluable for enhancing the performance of the chassis control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. However, at present, the commercially available tire monitoring systems are not equipped to sense and transmit high speed dynamic variables used for real-time active safety control systems. Consequently, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver's ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road friction coefficient is available.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-1904
Jian Zhao, Saied Taheri
A long standing problem with heavy vehicle stability has been rollover. With the higher center of gravity, heavier loads, and narrower tracks (as compared to passenger vehicles), they have a lower rollover stability threshold. In this paper, a rollover stability control algorithm based on a two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) and a three-DOF vehicle model for a two-axle truck was developed. First, the 3DOF model was used to predict the future Lateral load Transfer Rate (LTR). Using this LTR value, the dynamic rollover propensity was estimated. Then, a robust output feedback gain control rollover stability control algorithm based on the combination of active yaw control and active front steering control was developed. A H₂/H∞/poles placement multi-objective control strategy was developed based on the 2DOF reference model.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1903
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian
Dynamic “Game Theory” brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In previous studies, it was shown that vehicle stability can be represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the vehicle stability controller (VSC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the VSC command is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. This study focus on the uncertainty in the inputs, and more specifically, the driver's steering input.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2166
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Hedieh Alavi, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian
A graphical user interface (GUI) toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator (VSS) is developed in MATLAB to ease the use of this vehicle model and hopefully encourage its widespread application in the future. This toolbox uses the inherent MATLAB discrete-time solvers and is mainly based on Level-2 s-function design. This paper describes its built-in vehicle dynamics model based on multibody dynamics approach and nonlinear tire models, and traction/braking control systems including Cruise Control and Differential Braking systems. The built-in dynamics model is validated against CarSim 8 and the simulation results prove its accuracy. This paper illustrates the application of this new MATLAB toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator and discusses its development process, limitations, and future improvements.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2149
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian
Dynamic game theory brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In the presented methodology, vehicle stability is represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the direct yaw controller (DYC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the DYC control algorithm is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0963
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0183
Brad Hopkins, Saied Taheri
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1901
Brad Hopkins, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian, Alexander Reid
In this paper a yaw stability control algorithm along with an emergency roll control strategy have been developed. The yaw stability controller and emergency roll controller were both developed using linear two degree-of-freedom vehicle models. The yaw stability controller is based on Lyapunov stability criteria and uses vehicle lateral acceleration and yaw rate measurements to calculate the corrective yaw moment required to stabilize the vehicle yaw motion. The corrective yaw moment is then applied by means of a differential braking strategy in which one wheel is selected to be braked with appropriate brake torque applied. The emergency roll control strategy is based on a rollover coefficient related to vehicle static stability factor. The emergency roll control strategy utilizes vehicle lateral acceleration measurements to calculate the roll coefficient. If the roll coefficient exceeds some predetermined threshold value the emergency roll control strategy will deploy.
2009-10-06
Journal Article
2009-01-2871
Ben Duprey, Saied Taheri
The increasing use and implementation of yaw and roll stability control in heavy trucks has contributed to an increased level of safety for truck drivers and other motorists. It has been shown that the combination of the stability control systems with a predictive model-based stability index can dramatically improve the truck stability and hence road safety. In this respect the authors introduced a new Total Safety Margin (TSM) using a fuzzy logic-based stability index. That methodology utilized a smoothed step and provided acceptable results; however, continuing development has shown that a right sigmoid membership function distribution would provide more complete coverage of the fuzzy space. Compared to the more common triangular membership function which is discontinuous when the membership grade equals one, sigmoid functions facilitate obtaining smooth, continuously differentiable surfaces of a fuzzy model.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2595
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri
Tractor semi-trailer stability during emergency braking and steering maneuvers has been an issue that was improved through implementation of Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). Although some improvements have been achieved, the need for new control methodologies is evident from the number of accidents reported by NHTSA involving tractor semi-trailers. In this paper, a new control algorithm has been developed for improving the tractor semi-trailer stability through utilization of yaw moment, i.e., tire differential braking strategy. This new, multifaceted, adaptive control algorithm which allows the estimation of the unknown vehicle parameters through use of the adaptation laws is based on the Lyapunov Direct Method. A tractor semi-trailer model with four degrees of freedom was used to develop the control algorithm and the adaptation laws. The controller was implemented on a 2-axle tractor 1-axle van trailer in TruckSim 7©.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2597
Ben Duprey, Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri
The use of global positioning systems, or GPS, as a means of logistical organization for fleet vehicles has become more widespread in recent years. The system has the ability to track vehicle location, report on diagnostic trouble codes, and keep tabs on maintenance schedules thus helping to improve the safety and productivity of the vehicles and their operators. In addition, the increasing use and implementation of yaw and roll stability control in heavy trucks has contributed to an increased level of safety for truck drivers and other motorists. However, these systems require the vehicle to begin a yaw or roll event before they assist in maintaining control. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for utilizing the GPS signal in conjunction with the fuzzy based stability index to create a truly active safety system.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1666
Justin Shriver, Jason Chapo, Saied Taheri
This paper addresses a common issue in producing desktop simulations for production environments in which the most current version of the algorithm is available only in the form of the production code. The part of the system we are interested in is often called performance software (for example, slip control systems, transmission control, and engine control). From a control algorithm design perspective the ideal environment is a reference model in a high level language, which supports code generation. The complete environment would support templatized code generation so that the fixed-point code for the embedded controller can be generated directly. Many organizations have a significant investment in legacy C code, and the cost of remodeling the entire system may be unacceptably high (at least in the short term). In such an environment simulation tools are often underused because of the impression that the entire system must be remodeled.
Viewing 1 to 20 of 20