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Journal Article

Transient Power Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0133
Abstract This paper presents the transient power optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) system operating on a heavy-duty diesel (HDD). The optimization process is carried on an experimentally validated, physics-based, high fidelity ORC-WHR model, which consists of parallel tail pipe and EGR evaporators, a high pressure working fluid pump, a turbine expander, etc. Three different ORC-WHR mixed vapor temperature (MVT) operational strategies are evaluated to optimize the ORC system net power: (i) constant MVT; (ii) constant superheat temperature; (iii) fuzzy logic superheat temperature based on waste power level. Transient engine conditions are considered in the optimization. Optimization results reveal that adaptation of the vapor temperature setpoint based on evaporation pressure strategy (ii) provides 1.1% mean net power (MNP) improvement relative to a fixed setpoint strategy (i).
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Li-Ion Battery Aging Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Supervisory Control Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-0274
Abstract This paper presents the development of an electrochemical aging model of LiFePO4-Graphite battery based on single particle (SP) model. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth is considered as the aging mechanism. It is intended to provide both sufficient fidelity and computational efficiency required for integration within the HEV power management optimization framework. The model enables assessment of the battery aging rate by considering instantaneous lithium ion surface concentration rather than average concentration, thus enhancing the fidelity of predictions. In addition, an approximate analytical method is applied to speed up the calculation while preserving required accuracy. Next, this aging model are illustrated two applications. First is hybrid electric powertrain system model integration and simulation.
Journal Article

Impacts of Adding Photovoltaic Solar System On-Board to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Towards Meeting 2025 Fuel Economy CAFE Standards

2016-04-05
2016-01-1165
Abstract The challenge of meeting the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards of 2025 has led to major developments in the transportation sector, among which is the attempt to utilize clean energy sources. To date, use of solar energy as an auxiliary source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This paper is the first study at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of using solar energy on-board by means of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to enhance automotive fuel economies, extend driving ranges, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensure better economic value of internal combustion engine (ICE) -based vehicles to meet CAFE standards though 2025. This paper details and compares various aspects of hybrid solar electric vehicles with conventional ICE vehicles.
Journal Article

Optimal Supervisory Control of the Series HEV with Consideration of Temperature Effects on Battery Fading and Cooling Loss

2016-04-05
2016-01-1239
Abstract This paper develops a methodology to optimize the supervisory controller for a heavy-duty series hybrid electric vehicle, with consideration of battery aging and cooling loss. Electrochemistrybased battery aging model is integrated into vehicle model. The side reaction, reductive electrolyte decomposition, is modeled to determine battery aging rate, and the thermal effect on this reaction rate is considered by Arrhenius Law. The resulting capacity and power fading is included in the system-level study. Sensitivity analysis shows that battery aging could cause fuel economy loss by 5.9%, and increasing temperature could improve fuel economy at any given state-of-health, while accelerating battery aging. Stochastic dynamic programming algorithm is applied to a modeled system to handle the tradeoff between two objectives: maximizing fuel economy and minimizing battery aging.
Journal Article

Powerpack Optimal Design Methodology with Embedded Configuration Benchmarking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0313
Abstract Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Aging Effect on Three-Way Catalyst Oxygen Storage Dynamics

2016-04-05
2016-01-0971
Abstract The Three Way Catalyst (TWC) is an effective pollutant conversion system widely used in current production vehicles to satisfy emissions regulations. A TWC’s conversion efficiency degrades over time due to chemical and/or thermal mechanisms causing the catalyst to age. This reduction in conversion efficiency must be accounted for to ensure full useful life emissions compliance. This paper presents an experimental study of the aging impact on TWC performance. Four TWCs differentiated by their age, given in terms of miles driven, were tested. It is shown that the dynamics of oxygen storage are substantially affected by aging of the TWC. A previously developed physics-based oxygen storage model [1] is subsequently used to incorporate the effect of aging on the total Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC). Parameter identification results for the different age catalysts show that total oxygen storage capacity decreases substantially with aging and is insensitive to operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Modeling and Transient Validation of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0199
Abstract This paper presents an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system model for heavy-duty diesel (HDD) applications. The dynamic, physics-based model includes: heat exchangers for parallel exhaust and EGR circuits, compressible vapor working fluid, distribution and flow control valves, a high pressure pump, and a reservoir. A finite volume method is used to model the evaporator, and a pressure drop model is included to improve the accuracy of predictions. Experimental results obtained on a prototype ORC system are used for model calibration and validation. Comparison of predicted and measured values under steady-state conditions is pursued first, followed by the analysis of selected transient events. Validation reveals the model’s ability to track real-world temperature and pressure dynamics of the ORC system.
Journal Article

Impacts of Real-World Driving and Driver Aggressiveness on Fuel Consumption of 48V Mild Hybrid Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1166
Abstract The 48V mild hybrid technology is emerging as a very attractive option for high-volume vehicle electrification. Compared to high-voltage hybrids, the 48V system has a potential of achieving competitive fuel economy with significantly lower incremental costs. While previous studies of 48V mild hybrid systems discussed vehicle configuration, power management strategy and electric machine design, quantitative assessment of fuel economy under real-world conditions remains an open topic. Objectives of this paper are to propose a methodology for categorizing real-world cycles based on driver aggressiveness, and to subsequently analyze the impact of driving patterns on fuel saving potentials with a 48V mild hybrid system. Instead of using the certification test cycles to evaluate the fuel economy, real-world cycles are extracted from 2001-2003 Southern California Household Travel Survey.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation of Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag and Rolling Resistance

2015-09-29
2015-01-2776
Abstract Commercial vehicles transport the majority of the inland freight in US and a significant number of passengers. They are large fuel consumers as they operate a large number of hours per day, pulling heavy loads. The increasing fuel price and the Green House Gas emission regulation have provided a strong impetus for new technologies capable of improving the commercial vehicle fuel economy. Among others, optimized powertrain control can improve the vehicle fuel economy, particularly if it is based on accurate information about the instantaneous load demand. Furthermore, model-based online vehicle parameter estimator is critical for implementation of an adaptive vehicle controller. While vehicle mass estimation has been successfully demonstrated, rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag estimation has not been fully explored yet. This paper examines this problem using model-based approach with a supervisory data extraction scheme.
Technical Paper

Influence of Directly Injected Gasoline and Porosity Fraction on the Thermal Properties of HCCI Combustion Chamber Deposits

2015-09-06
2015-24-2449
The limited operational range of low temperature combustion engines is influenced by near-wall conditions. A major factor is the accumulation and burn-off of combustion chamber deposits. Previous studies have begun to characterize in-situ combustion chamber deposit thermal properties with the end goal of understanding, and subsequently replicating the beneficial effects of CCD on HCCI combustion. Combustion chamber deposit thermal diffusivity was found to differ depending on location within the chamber, with significant initial spatial variations, but a certain level of convergence as equilibrium CCD thickness is reached. A previous study speculatively attributed these spatially dependent CCD diffusivity differences to either local differences in morphology, or interactions with the fuel-air charge in the DI engine. In this work, the influence of directly injected gasoline on CCD thermal diffusivity is measured using the in-situ technique based on fast thermocouple signals.
Journal Article

Quantification of Drive Cycle's Rapid Speed Fluctuations Using Fourier Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1213
Abstract This paper presents a new way to evaluate vehicle speed profile aggressiveness, quantify it from the perspective of the rapid speed fluctuations, and assess its impact on vehicle fuel economy. The speed fluctuation can be divided into two portions: the large-scale low frequency speed trace which follows the ongoing traffic and road characteristics, and the small-scale rapid speed fluctuations normally related to the driver's experience, style and ability to anticipate future events. The latter represent to some extent the driver aggressiveness and it is well known to affect the vehicle energy consumption and component duty cycles. Therefore, the rapid speed fluctuations are the focus of this paper. Driving data collected with the GPS devices are widely adopted for study of real-world fuel economy, or the impact on electrified vehicle range and component duty cycles.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System - Nonlinear Controller Design

2015-04-14
2015-01-1710
Abstract The components in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain include the battery pack, an internal combustion engine, and the electric machines such as motors and possibly a generator. These components generate a considerable amount of heat during driving cycles. A robust thermal management system with advanced controller, designed for temperature tracking, is required for vehicle safety and energy efficiency. In this study, a hybridized mid-size truck for military application is investigated. The paper examines the integration of advanced control algorithms to the cooling system featuring an electric-mechanical compressor, coolant pump and radiator fans. Mathematical models are developed to numerically describe the thermal behavior of these powertrain elements. A series of controllers are designed to effectively manage the battery pack, electric motors, and the internal combustion engine temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Knock Determination Techniques for Diesel-Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2695
Abstract The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated.
Journal Article

Development of a Phenomenological Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Diesel Engine Simulation and Its Use for Analysis of Transient Operations

2014-10-13
2014-01-2546
Abstract Abundant supply of Natural Gas (NG) is U.S. and cost-advantage compared to diesel provides impetus for engineers to use alternative gaseous fuels in existing engines. Dual-fuel natural gas engines preserve diesel thermal efficiencies and reduce fuel cost without imposing consumer range anxiety. Increased complexity poses several challenges, including the transient response of an engine with direct injection of diesel fuel and injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) upstream of the intake manifold. A 1-D simulation of a Cummins ISX heavy duty, dual-fuel, natural gas-diesel engine is developed in the GT-Power environment to study and improve transient response. The simulated Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT)behavior, intake and exhaust geometry, valve timings and injector models are validated through experimental results. A triple Wiebe combustion model is applied to characterize experimental combustion results for both diesel and dual-fuel operation.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A post-processing methodology for determining temperature distributions in an experimental HCCI engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1276
Abstract Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

2014-04-01
2014-01-1801
Abstract The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Journal Article

Optimization of the Series-HEV Control with Consideration of the Impact of Battery Cooling Auxiliary Losses

2014-04-01
2014-01-1904
This paper investigates the impact of battery cooling ancillary losses on fuel economy, and optimal control strategy for a series hybrid electric truck with consideration of cooling losses. Battery thermal model and its refrigeration-based cooling system are integrated into vehicle model, and the parasitic power consumption from cooling auxiliaries is considered in power management problem. Two supervisory control strategies are compared. First, a rule-based control strategy is coupled with a thermal management strategy; it controls power system and cooling system separately. The second is optimal control strategy developed using Dynamic Programming; it optimizes power flow with consideration of both propulsion and cooling requirement. The result shows that battery cooling consumption could cause fuel economy loss as high as 5%.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Modeling and Evaluation of the Engine Options in Conventional and Mild-Hybrid Powertrain

2013-04-08
2013-01-1449
The focus of this paper is on developing, modeling and simulation framework for a bias free comparison of different engine concepts in a conventional and hybrid configuration. The first unique contribution of this paper is in the development of a shift logic algorithm that allows tailoring the shift schedule to unique engine characteristics in a consistent manner. The shift schedule is intentionally generated in a generic manner by using identical set of rules for all engines. Therefore, the methodology allows a fair comparison of different engine concepts, while taking into account the individual features of the engine i.e. speed range, efficiency and maximum performance. The latter establishes a baseline for the subsequent study of hybrid configurations. The second unique contribution is the hybrid strategy optimization algorithm, also tailored to a particular engine configuration.
Journal Article

Design and Modeling of a Novel Internal Combustion Engine with Direct Hydraulic Power Take-off

2013-04-08
2013-01-1733
This paper introduces a Hydraulic Linear Engine (HLE) concept and describes a model to simulate instantaneous engine behavior. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed an HLE prototype as an evolution of their previous six-cylinder, four-stroke, free-piston engine (FPE) hardware. The HLE design extracts work hydraulically, in a fashion identical to the initial FPE, and is intended for use in a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Unlike the FPE, however, the HLE utilizes a crank for improved timing control and increased robustness. Preliminary experimental results show significant speed fluctuations and cylinder imbalance that require careful controls design. This paper also introduces a model of the HLE that exhibits similar behavior, making it an indispensible tool for controls design. Further, the model's behavior is evaluated over a range of operating conditions currently unobtainable by the experimental setup.
Technical Paper

Deaeration Device Study for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

2012-09-24
2012-01-2038
This paper investigates the development of a deaeration device to remove nitrogen from the hydraulic fluid in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). HHVs, which use accumulators to store and recycle energy, can significantly reduce vehicle emissions in urban delivery vehicles. In accumulators, nitrogen behind a piston cylinder or inside a bladder pressurizes an incompressible fluid. The permeation of the nitrogen through the rubber bladder into the hydraulic fluid limits the efficiency and reliability of the HHV system, since the pressure drop in the hydraulic fluid can in turn cause cavitation on pump components and excessive noise in the system. The nitrogen bubbles within the hydraulic fluid may be removed through the employment of commercial bubble eliminators if the bubbles are larger than a certain threshold. However, gas is also dissolved within the hydraulic fluid; therefore, novel design is necessary for effective deaeration in the fluid HHV circuit.
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