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2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0947
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Leonidas Chasapidis, Danis Deloglou, Nickolas Vlachos, Adam Kotrba, Ginette Anderson
Abstract Evolving marine diesel emission regulations drive significant reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. There is, therefore, considerable interest to develop and validate Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) converters for marine diesel NOx emission control. Substrates in marine applications need to be robust to survive the high sulfur content of marine fuels and must offer cost and pressure drop benefits. In principle, extruded honeycomb substrates of higher cell density offer benefits on system volume and provide increased catalyst area (in direct trade-off with increased pressure drop). However higher cell densities may become more easily plugged by deposition of soot and/or sulfate particulates, on the inlet face of the monolithic converter, as well as on the channel walls and catalyst coating, eventually leading to unacceptable flow restriction or suppression of catalytic function.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0968
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Chrysoula Pagkoura, Souzana Lorentzou, Georgia Kastrinaki
Abstract Catalysts that have been extensively investigated for direct soot oxidation in Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are very often based on mixed oxides of ceria with zirconia, materials known to assist soot oxidation by providing oxygen to the soot through an oxidation-reduction catalytic cycle. Besides the catalyst composition that significantly affects soot oxidation, other parameters such as morphological characteristics of the catalyst largely determined by the synthesis technique followed, as well as the reagents used in the synthesis may also contribute to the activity of the catalysts. In the present work, two ceria-zirconia catalyst samples with different zirconia content were subjected to different milling protocols with the aim to shift the catalyst particle size distribution to lower values. The produced catalysts were then evaluated with respect to their soot oxidation activity following established protocols from previous works.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1016
Hidemasa Iwata, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Kazuki Nakamura, Akihito Ogiso, Kazutake Ogyu, Toshiaki Shibata, Kazushige Ohno
Abstract In order to guide the development of asymmetric plugging layout Diesel Particulate Filters, hereafter referred to as “VPL-DPF”, in this paper we present some evaluation results regarding the effect of design parameters on the VPL-DPF performance. VPL-DPF samples which have different wall thicknesses (thin and thick walls) were evaluated in regards to their pressure drop and soot oxidation behaviors, with the aim to optimize the design of DPF structure. As a result of pressure drop evolution during soot loading, contrary to our expectation, in some cases, it was found out that VPL increases the transient pressure drop compared to the conventional plugging layout DPF. That meant there is an appropriate specific optimum wall thickness for adoption of VPL which has to be well defined at its structural design phase. Based on our previous research, it is expected that this result is due to interactions among the different (five) wall flows that exist in a VPL-DPF.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1510
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou
Asymmetric and Variable Cell (AVC) geometry Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) occupy an increasing portion of the DPFs currently offered by various DPF manufacturers, aiming at providing higher filtration area in the same filter volume to meet demanding emission control applications for passenger cars but also for heavy duty vehicles. In the present work we present an approach for designing and optimizing such DPFs by providing a quantitative description of the flow and deposition of soot in these structures. Soot deposit growth dynamics in AVC DPFs is studied computationally, primary and secondary flows over the inlet channels cross-sectional perimeters are analyzed and their interactions are elucidated. The result is a rational description of the observed growth of soot deposits, as the flow readjusts to transport the soot particles along the path of least resistance (which is not necessarily the shortest geometric path between the inlet and outlet channel, i.e. the wall thickness).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1512
Kazuki Nakamura, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Toshiaki Shibata, Yuki Hashizume
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) equipped with diesel vehicles have become indispensable components to capture the soot emitted from the engines from a viewpoint of both human health and global warming problems as well as the prevailing regulations. Meanwhile, the pressure drop caused by them leads to a direct increase of fuel consumption. In order to reduce it guaranteeing the sufficient soot filtration efficiency, we have developed the new concept of asymmetric plugging layout for the DPF design, so-called Valuable Plugging Layout (VPL), on the basis of octosquare (OS) structure and have clarified the advantage of the pressure drop reduction both experimentally and theoretically. The VPL-DPF consists of two kinds of octagonal/square inlet channels and octagonal outlet channels, and there are thought to be five filtration velocity modes as well as four kinds of soot deposit layers on each side of the inlet channel walls.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1593
Hidemasa Iwata, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Kazuki Nakamura, Kazutake Ogyu, Kazushige Ohno
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an effective method to reduce Nitrogen Oxide emissions. In recent years the trend of increasing EGR rate in-cylinders is an integral part of most improvements in combustion technology developments. The object of this work is to study the influence of EGR rate on the physical and chemical properties of soot particles. Soot from several operating points of a diesel engine run were collected on a high temperature filters. The pressure drop behavior during the soot loading was monitored then the soot permeability was calculated. Afterwards, the soot primary size was calculated from the obtained data and it showed good correspondence to the actual measurement. It is confirmed that all the soot primary sizes were around 22 nm in diameter. In contrast, the soot aggregate sizes and the soot concentrations were found to increase with increasing EGR rate. Subsequently, Oxidation tests were conducted to evaluate the reactivity of the soot.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0087
Carlo Beatrice, Natale Rispoli, Gabriele Di Blasio, Giorgos Patrianakos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Abdurrahman Imren, Ingemar Denbratt, Roberto Palacin
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0524
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Dimitrios Pappas, Souzana Lorentzou, Theofilaktos Akritidis, Leonidas Chasapidis, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
In this paper, a methodology is presented to study the influence of thermal aging on catalytic DPF performance using small scale coated filter samples and side-stream reactor technology. Different mixed oxide catalytic coating families are examined under realistic engine exhaust conditions and under fresh and thermally aged state. This methodology involves the determination of filter physical (flow resistance under clean and soot loaded conditions and filtration efficiency) and chemical properties (reactivity of catalytic coating towards direct soot oxidation). Thermal aging led to sintering of catalytic nanoparticles and to changes in the structure of the catalytic layer affecting negatively the filter wall permeability, the clean filtration efficiency and the pressure drop behavior during soot loading. It also affected negatively the catalytic soot oxidation activity of the catalyzed samples.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0837
Hidemasa Iwata, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Kazuki Nakamura, Takafumi Kasuga, Kazutake Ogyu, Kazushige Ohno
ABSTRUCT This paper describes the durability of the filtration layer integrated into Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) that we have developed to ensure low pressure loss and high filtration efficiency performances which also meet emission regulations. DPF samples were evaluated in regards to their performance deterioration which is brought about by ash loading and uncontrolled regeneration cycles, respectively. Ash was synthesized by using a diesel fuel/lubrication oil mixture and was trapped up to a level which corresponded to a 240,000km run, into the DPFs both with and without the filtration layer. Afterwards, aged-DPFs were measured with respect to their permeability, pressure loss, filtration efficiency, as well as soot oxidation speed using suitable analytical methods. Consequently, it has been confirmed that there was no noteworthy deterioration of the performances in the DPF with the filtration layer.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1288
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Souzana Lorentzou
Despite the great effort devoted to the modeling of the operation of catalytic DPFs, even today very simple expressions are used for the soot oxidation rate. In the relevant to DPF operation case of a gas phase rich in oxygen, the structure of the soot-catalyst geometry and its evolution during oxidation determines the reaction rate. An extensive set of controlled experiments (isothermal or with linear temperature increase) using fuel borne catalysts and catalytic coatings has been performed in order to obtain corresponding soot oxidation rate-conversion curves. The shape of the resulting curves cannot be described by the typical theories for solid phase reactions posing the need for microstructural models for the micromechanics of soot catalyst interactions.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0842
Kazuki Nakamura, Nickolasd Vlachos, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Hidemasa Iwata, Ohno Kazushige
Nowadays diesel particulate filters (DPFs) with catalyst coatings have assumed one of the most significant roles for road vehicle emission control. DPFs made of re-crystallized SiC (SiC-DPFs) have guaranteed the soot filtration efficiency for the current regulation. In order to further enhance their filtration efficiency, even though a higher porosity and larger pore size must be adopted for sufficient catalyst coating capacity, we developed the concept of a filtration layer on the DPF inlet channel walls and researched its performance both theoretically and experimentally. First of all, models of the new filtration layer, closely resembling the real one made in the laboratory, were digitally reconstructed and soot deposition simulations were conducted.
2011-09-11
Journal Article
2011-24-0105
George Karagiannakis, Harry Mandilas, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Carlo Beatrice, Maurizio Lazzaro, Natale Rispoli, Jose V. Pastor, Edén ROS, Santiago Molina
The present work relates to the investigation of the basic oxidation characteristics of iron and aluminium nanoparticles as well as the feasibility of their combustion under both Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-like and real engine conditions. Based on a series of proof-of-concept experiments, combustion was found to be feasible taking place in a controllable way and bearing similarities to the respective case of conventional fuels. These studies were complimented by relevant in-situ and ex-situ/post-analysis, in order to elaborate the fundamental phenomena occurring during combustion as well as the extent and ‘quality’ of the process. The oxidation mechanisms of the two metallic fuels appear different and -as expected- the energy release during combustion of aluminium is significantly higher than that released in the case of iron.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0606
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Alexandra Zygogianni, Souzana Lorentzou, Christopher Severin, Markus Schoenen, Raimund Vedder, Michael Fiebig, Jacques Lavy, Stephane Zinola, Athanasios Konstandopoulos
Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0604
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Nickolas Vlachos, Ludwig Buergler, Georg Seewald, Peter Prenninger, Athanasios Konstandopoulos
Trends towards lower vehicle fuel consumption and smaller environmental impact will increase the share of Diesel hybrids and Diesel Range Extended Vehicles (REV). Because of the Diesel engine presence and the ever tightening soot particle emissions, these vehicles will still require soot particle emissions control systems. Ceramic wall-flow monoliths are currently the key players in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) market, offering certain advantages compared to other DPF technologies such as the metal based DPFs. The latter had, in the past, issues with respect to filtration efficiency, available filtration area and, sometimes, their manufacturing cost, the latter factor making them less attractive for most of the conventional Diesel engine powered vehicles. Nevertheless, metal substrate DPFs may find a better position in vehicles like Diesel hybrids and REVs in which high instant power consumption is readily offered enabling electrical filter regeneration.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0890
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou
In the present work we derive analytical solutions for the problem of convection, diffusion and chemical reaction in wall-flow monoliths. The advantage of having analytical instead of numerical treatments is clear as the analytical solutions not only can be exploited to bring full scale simulations of diesel particulate filters to the real time domain, but also they enable efficient implementations on computationally limited engine control units (ECUs) for on-board management and control of emission control systems. The presentation describes the mathematical problem formulation, the governing dimensionless parameters and the corresponding assumptions. Then the analytical solution is derived and several asymptotic (for limiting values of the parameters) and approximating solutions are developed, corresponding to different physical situations. Reactant distributions in the filter are presented and discussed for several values of the parameters.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0630
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Souzana Lorentzou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Establishing a certain maintenance-free time period regarding modern diesel exhaust emission control systems is of major importance nowadays. One of the most serious problems Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) manufacturers face concerning system's durability is the performance deterioration due to the filter aging because of the accumulation of the ash particles. The evaluation of the effect of the ash aging on the filter performance is a time and cost consuming task that slows down the process of manufacturing innovative filter structures and designs. In this work we present a methodology for producing filter samples aged by accumulating ash produced by the controlled pyrolysis of oil-fuel solutions. Such ash particles bear morphological (size) and compositional similarity to ash particles collected from engine aged DPFs. The ash particles obtained are compared to those from real engine operation.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0287
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Souzana Lorentzou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Future diesel emission control systems have to effectively operate under non-conventional low-temperature combustion engine operating conditions. In this work the research and development efforts for the realization of a Multi-Functional catalyst Reactor (MFR) for the exhaust of the upcoming diesel engines is presented. This work is based on recent advances in catalytic nano-structured materials synthesis and coating techniques. Different catalytic functionalities have been carefully distributed in the filter substrate microstructure for maximizing the direct and indirect (NO2-assisted) soot oxidation rate, the HC and CO conversion efficiency as well as the filtration efficiency. Moreover, a novel filter design has been applied to enable internal heat recovery capability by the implementation of heat exchange between the outlet and the inlet to the filter flow paths.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0483
Souzana Lorentzou, Chrysa Pagkoura, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Joerg Boettcher
Novel catalytic coatings with a variety of methods based on conventional and novel synthesis routes are developed for Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The developed catalytic composition exhibits significant direct soot oxidation as evaluated by reacting mixtures of diesel soot and catalyst powders in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA). The catalyst composition was further deposited on oxide and non-oxide porous filter structures that were evaluated on an engine bench with respect to their filtration efficiency, pressure drop behavior and direct soot oxidation activity under realistic conditions. The effect of the catalyst amount on the filtration efficiency of non-oxide filters was also investigated. Evaluation of the indirect soot oxidation was conducted on non-oxide catalytic filters coated with precious metal.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0442
Nickolas Vlachos, Giorgos Patrianakos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) continue to be an important emission control solution and are now also expanding to include additional functionalities such as gas species oxidation (such as CO, hydrocarbons and NO) and even storage phenomena (such as NOx and NH3 storage). Therefore an in depth understanding of the coupled transport - reaction phenomena occurring inside a CDPF wall can provide useful guidance for catalyst placement and improved accuracy over idealized effective medium 1-D and 0-D models for CDPF operation. In the present work a previously developed 3-D simulation framework for porous materials is applied to the case of NO-NO2 turnover in a granular silicon carbide CDPF. The detailed geometry of the CDPF wall is digitally reconstructed and micro-simulation methods are used to obtain detailed descriptions of the concentration and transport of the NO and NO2 species in the reacting environment of the soot cake and the catalyst coated pores of the CDPF wall.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0417
Souzana Lorentzou, Chrysa Pagkoura, Alexandra Zygogianni, Georgia Kastrinaki, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
The increasing need for controlled diesel engine emissions and the strict regulations in the abatement of diesel exhaust products lead to an ever increasing use of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in OEM applications. The periodic regeneration of DPFs (oxidation of soot particles) demands temperatures that rarely appear during engine operation. It is therefore necessary to employ direct or indirect catalytic measures. In the present work, the development and synthesis via aerosol-based routes, of nanostructured base metal oxides for direct soot oxidation, along with their characterization and their evaluation in engine exhaust is described. The synthesized powders were characterized with respect to their phase composition and morphology. XRD, SEM and TEM analysis have shown the nanostructured character of the powders, while Raman spectroscopy was employed for the preliminary characterization of the materials surface chemistry.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0756
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Apostolos Tsakis, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Maria Vittoria Prati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola
Although engine emissions per vehicle have been reduced for twenty years with technical developments in the fields of engine, after-treatment technologies and fuels the urban air pollution problem still exists in many cities around the world. Forthcoming emission regulations will require further development of new complex technologies to reach low emissions. On-board driving assessment of such technologies offers significant advantages in the development phase of novel emission reduction. In this paper we present the design, development and commissioning of a mobile laboratory able to monitor on-board along the exhaust line gaseous and particulate pollutants as well as measure these pollutants in the ambient environment around the vehicle.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0621
Kazutake Ogyu, Tomokazu Oya, Kazushige Ohno, Ahanasios G. Konstandopoulos
DPF has become widely known as an indispensable after-treatment component for the purification of the particulate matter in the diesel exhaust gas. But, in order to correspond to further regulation strengthening such as carbon dioxide emission regulation and number-based particulate matter emission regulation, it must be necessary also for DPF to keep improving its performance. In this study, it was examined how to improve both the filtration efficiency and the oxidation efficiency of PM regarding the catalyzed DPF. SiC-made 10mil/300cpsi-OctoSquare asymmetric cell structure was chosen for the DPF substrate and PM oxidation catalyst was coated on the surface of the filter wall as a layer with the device of the coating method. As a result, it was found that the layer coated DPF has advantage on the filtration efficiency without soot accumulation and efficiency was similar to an uncoated one with 0.1 g/l soot loading.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0313
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Ioannis Dolios
As different Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) designs and media are becoming widely adopted, research efforts in the characterization of their influence on particle emissions intensify. In the present work the influence of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and five different Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) under steady state and transient engine operating conditions on the particulate and gaseous emissions of a common-rail diesel engine are studied. An array of particle measuring instrumentation is employed, in which all instruments simultaneously measure from the engine exhaust. Each instrument measures a different characteristic/metric of the diesel particles (mobility size distribution, aerodynamic size distribution, total number, total surface, active surface, etc.) and their combination assists in building a complete characterization of the particle emissions at various measurement locations: engine-out, DOC-out and DPF-out.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1129
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Souzana Lorentzou, Chrysa Pagkoura, Eleni Papaioannou, Kazushige Ohno, Kazutake Ogyu, Tomokazu Oya
Direct catalytic soot oxidation is expected to become an important component of future diesel particulate emission control systems. The development of advanced Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs relies on the interplay of chemistry and geometry in order to enhance soot-catalyst proximity. An extensive set of well-controlled experiments has been performed to provide direct catalytic soot oxidation rates in CDPFs employing small-scale side-stream sample exposure. The experiments are analyzed with a state-of-the-art diesel particulate filter simulator and a set of kinetic parameters are derived for direct catalytic soot oxidation by fuel-borne catalysts as well as by catalytic coatings. The influence of soot-catalyst proximity, on catalytic soot oxidation is found to be excellently described by the so-called Two-Layer model, developed previously by the authors.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1130
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Souzana Lorentzou
Following the successful market introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), this class of emission control devices is expanding to include additional functionalities such as gas species oxidation (such as CO, HC and NO), storage phenomena (such as NOx and NH3 storage) to the extent that we should today refer not to DPFs but to Multifunctional Reactor Separators. This trend poses many challenges for the modeling of such systems since the complexity of the coupled reaction and transport phenomena makes any direct general numerical approach to require unacceptably high computing times. These multi-functionalities are urgently needed to be incorporated into system level emission control simulation tools in a robust and computationally efficient manner. In the present paper we discuss a new framework and its application for the computationally efficient implementation of such phenomena.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1131
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Nickolas D. Vlachos, Giorgos Patrianakos
In previous work an advanced micro-scale simulation framework for DPF materials has been presented. This development comes as DPF developers continue to seek competitive advantage at the material level and the availability of computing power is improving to the point that micro-scale simulation may be considered for routine application for DPF materials optimization. The aim of the present work is to show an in-depth application of advanced micro-scale simulation methods to silicon carbide DPF materials currently in widespread use. The quality and utility of these simulations, targeting filtration and soot oxidation phenomena in SiC DPF material, is evaluated and the potential for the use of such advanced simulation technology is assessed in a materials development context.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0919
Kazutake Ogyu, Tomokazu Oya, Kazushige Ohno, Ioannis Dolios, Evdoxia Kladopoulou, Souzana Lorentzou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
It is a big challenge how to satisfy both the purification of exhaust gas and the decrease of fuel penalty, that is, carbon-dioxide emission. Regarding the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) applied in the diesel after-treatment system, it must be effective for lowering the fuel penalty to prolong the interval and reduce the frequency of the DPF regeneration operation. This can be achieved by a DPF that has high Particulate Matter (PM) mass limit and high PM oxidation performance that is enough to regenerate the DPF continuously during the normal running operation. In this study, the examination of the pore structure of the wall of a DPF that could expand the continuous regeneration region in the engine operation map was carried out. Several porous materials with a wide range of pore structure were prepared and coated with a Mixed Oxide Catalyst (MOC). The continuous regeneration performance was evaluated under realistic conditions in the exhaust of a diesel engine.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0260
Nickolas D. Vlachos, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) material design based on a traditional design of experiments approach can be very time consuming and costly, due to the high number of tests and prototype material samples required. This provides an opportunity for the application of simulation tools at the microscopic scale, which are recently seeing increasing use in DPF material studies. The current work describes a framework for such micro-scale simulations based on high fidelity digital representations of the porous materials of interest, on the rationale that the performance of the latter materials depends strongly on the coupling of different physicochemical phenomena occurring at the microscopic scale where material morphology is important.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1075
Eleni Papaioannou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Jean-Paul Morin, David Preterre
The objective of this study is the design, construction and evaluation of a Selective Particle Size (SPS) sampler able to provide continuous delivery of diesel soot particles of specific size ranges. The design of the sampler combines principles of aerosol transport phenomena and separation technologies. Particles smaller than a given size are removed from the exhaust by diffusional deposition, while removal of particles above a given size is achieved by low pressure inertial impaction. The main application of the developed sampler is the exposure of biological samples such as cell and tissue cultures to selected sizes of diesel exhaust particles. By applying the SPS sampler to diesel exhaust it is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain two aerosol streams with widely separated particle size distributions (of nanometric dimensions), suitable for biological exposure studies.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0874
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Evdoxia Kladopoulou, Ioannis Dolios
In this paper a fast DPF screening procedure is proposed using small-scale filter samples of different technologies in a well-controlled environment but under realistic engine exhaust conditions. The DPF samples are evaluated in a specially built Multi-Reactor Assembly (MRA) with respect to their flow resistance, filtration efficiency, soot loading behavior, soot oxidation behavior, as well as their ash induced ageing behavior.
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